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Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae   Smith, 1952 


Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Extant: 1 valid tribe, 3 valid genera, 235 valid species

Fossil: 20 valid species

Pseudomyrmecinae Smith, 1952a PDF: 98. Type-genus: Pseudomyrmex. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Pseudomyrmicidae as family: Bernard, 1953b PDF: 221 [Pseudomyrmicidae].
[Note: Pseudomyrmecinae retains priority over Leptaleinae and Pseudomyrminae under Article 40.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th Edition), 1999: 46.]
Tribes of Pseudomyrmecinae: Pseudomyrmecini
Subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae references
Forel, 1893b PDF: 164 (diagnosis); Emery, 1895l PDF: 768 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 139 (diagnosis); Emery, 1914e PDF: 34 (diagnosis, in key); Emery, 1921c PDF: 21 (diagnosis, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922: 103, 654, 795, 1014 (diagnosis, genera key, Afrotropical, Malagasy catalogues); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 77 (Nearctic); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 126 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954e PDF: 23 (phylogeny); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 452 (proventriculus morphology); Gotwald, 1969b PDF: 116 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 39 (diagnosis); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 329 (West Africa, genera); Brown, 1973b PDF: 166 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 52 (larvae, review and synthesis); Smith, 1979: 1345 (North America catalogue); Snelling, 1981: 393 (synoptic classification); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 17 (Australia catalogue); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 257 (synoptic classification); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77 (synoptic classification); Ward, 1990 PDF: 449 (diagnosis, subfamily revision, genera key, phylogeny); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 12 (synoptic classification); Baroni Urbani et al., 1992 PDF: 317 (phylogeny); Jaffe, 1993: 13 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); Lattke, 1993: 170 (Neotropical genera); Bolton, 1994: 184 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera key); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1042 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 15 (catalogue); Shattuck, 1999: 208 (Australia, synopsis); Baroni Urbani, 2000 PDF: 480 (phylogeny); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 30, 134 (diagnosis, synopsis); Ward & Downie, 2005 PDF: 310 (evolution, phylogeny); Brady et al., 2006 PDF: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau et al., 2006 PDF: 102 (phylogeny); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 49 (male diagnosis); Chomicki et al., 2015 10.1098/rspb.2015.2200 PDF: 5 (phylogeny); Baccaro et al., 2015 10.5281/zenodo.32912 PDF: 114, 350 (Brazil genera key, text); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 56 (diagnosis).
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mayotte, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
    Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, North Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen
    Europe: Russia
    Oceania: Australia, Hawaii, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic


Workers of this subfamily can be recognized by the combination of large eyes (EL/HL usually > 0.25), short mandibles, flexible promesonotal connection, and presence of a postpetiole. Other characteristic features include: antennal sockets partly exposed in full-face (frontal) view; scape relatively short (SL/HL < 0.75); clypeus narrow (front to back) and not extending posteriorly between the frontal carinae; metapleural gland orifice situated at extreme posteroventral margin of metapleuron; hind tibia usually with two apical spurs, of which the posterior spur is pectinate; and sting well developed.


These are slender, large-eyed arboreal ants, predominantly tropical or subtropical in distribution. One genus and two species occur in California.


Bolton (1994); Ward (1989a, 1990, 1991, 2001).

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