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Genus: Proceratium   Roger, 1863 


Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Extant: 87 valid species

Fossil: 6 valid species

Proceratium Roger, 1863a PDF: 171. Type-species: Proceratium silaceum, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Genus Proceratium references
Roger, 1863b PDF: 16, 21 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 451, 455 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 12 (Sysphingta, Proceratium diagnoses); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 258 (U.S.A. catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 18 (catalogue); Emery, 1911e PDF: 50 (diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911e PDF: 50 (Sysphingta diagnosis, catalogue); Arnold, 1915: 34 (Sysphingta diagnosis); Emery, 1916a PDF: 103 (Italy species key); Wheeler, 1922: 761 (Afrotropical catalogue); Kratochvíl et al., 1944 PDF: 58, 88 (West Palaearctic species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 39, 41 (North America Proceratium, Sysphingta species keys); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 77 (Asia Proceratium, Sysphingta checklists); Brown, 1958g PDF: 241 (review of genus); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 81 (diagnosis); Snelling, 1967 PDF: 8 (New World species key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 211 (Neotropical catalogue); Brown, 1974a PDF: 81 (species notes); Baroni Urbani, 1977d PDF: 91 (European species, synopsis); Smith, 1979: 1338 (North America catalogue); Brown, 1980c PDF: 342 (New World species key); Terron, 1981 PDF: 102 (Afrotropical species notes); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 39 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 65 (Australia checklist); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 264 (Balkans species key); Ward, 1988 PDF: 116 (New World species key); Morisita et al., 1989: 14 (Japan species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 373 (Neotropical catalogue); Lattke, 1994 PDF: 113 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 366 (catalogue); Shattuck, 1999: 203 (Australia synopsis); Xu, 2000c PDF: 434 (China species key); Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002 PDF: 31 (Japan species key); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 179 (synopsis); Baroni Urbani & de Andrade, 2003a PDF: 40 (diagnosis, all species revision, keys; Palaearctic species key: 445; Indomalayan species key: 447; Oceanean species key: 449; Afrotropical species key: 451; Nearctic and Neotropical species key: 452; world species key: 456); Xu, 2006 PDF: 153 (China species key); Sosa-Calvo & Longino, 2008 PDF: 228 (Neotropical species key); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2009 PDF: 13 (Malagasy males diagnosis); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 97 (Taiwan species key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 166 (Fiji species key); Hita Garcia et al., 2014 PDF (Afrotropical clade key: 53; Proceratium arnoldi clade revision, Afrotropical species key: 55); Hita Garcia et al., 2015 PDF: 101 (Fiji revision, species key); Dlussky et al., 2015 PDF: 143 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Liu et al., 2015 10.3897/JHR.46.5849 PDF: 35 (Somoa revision, Oceanic island species key); Cantone, 2017 PDF: 276 (brief male diagnosis); Staab et al., 2018 10.3897/zookeys.770.24908 PDF: 144 (Chinese species); Fernandes et al., 2019 10.13102/sociobiology.v66i4.4484 PDF: 556 (P. micrommatum clade species key); Escárraga et al., 2019 PDF: 688 (Colombia species key); Sadasivan & Kripakaran, 2022 10.11609/jott.7682.14.7.21368-21387 PDF: 21371 (Proceratium stictum species group worker description), 21376 (modified key to Indo-Malayan species (workers)); Borowiec & Salata, 2022 PDF: 16 (diagnosis), 17 (key to Greece species).

Taxon Page Images:

Proceratium californicum Jasper Ridge, California, USA.
Image © Alex Wild. // Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Belize, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, United States, Venezuela
    Asia: Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, China, Cyprus, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam
    Europe: Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Ukraine
    Oceania: Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native biogeographic regions (according to species list records):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic


Proceratium species are mostly hypogeic (subterranean) ants, apparently specialized as predators on eggs of spiders and other arthropods.


Worker: eyes very small or absent; mandible multidentate and not overhung by clypeus; antennal sockets largely exposed in full-face (frontal) view of head; pronotum fused to mesonotum; abdominal tergite 4 strongly arched and recurved ventrally, the corresponding sternite very reduced in size.


A single species of Proceratium has been recorded from California.


Baroni Urbani (1977d); Brown (1958g, 1958j, 1974a, 1980c); Lattke (1991b); Onoyama & Yoshimura (2002); Snelling (1967); Snelling & Cover (1992); Ward (1988); Xu (2000c).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Proceratium   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2009, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to genera of the subfamily Proceratiinae., Zootaxa 2216, pp. 1-21: 13, (download) 13 22827
Proceratium   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 38, (download) 38 21008
Proceratium nov. gen  Roger, J., 1863, Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses, nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegeben Beschreibungen., Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7, pp. 131-214: 171, (download) 171 4101

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