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Genus: Strumigenys   Smith, 1860 


Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Extant: 878 valid species

Fossil: 4 valid species

Strumigenys Smith, 1860c PDF: 72. Type-species: Strumigenys mandibularis, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Strumigenys in Myrmicidae: Smith, 1871b PDF: 334; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262.
Strumigenys as genus: all authors.
Genus Strumigenys catalogues
Mayr, 1863a PDF: 424, 453, 455 (Labidogenys, Pyramica, Strumigenys); Roger, 1863b PDF: 40; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 464, 465 (Europe Strumigenys, Epitritus); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 145, 148 (Strumigenys, Epitritus); Wheeler, 1922: 917, 918, 920 (Afrotropical Strumigenys, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Epitritus); Wheeler, 1922: 1034 (Malagasy); Emery, 1924f PDF: 323, 325, 326 (Strumigenys, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Strumigenys (Codiomyrmex), Glamyromyrmex, Pentastruma, Epitritus); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 104-107 (Asia Eneria, Epitritus, Kyidris, Pentastruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Strumigenys (Strumigenys)); Smith, 1951c PDF: 825 (North America); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 37, 77, 98, 110, 116, 163, 226, 230, 243, 250, 255 (Neotropical Borgmeierita, Chelystruma, Codiomyrmex, Codioxenus, Dorisidris, Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Neostruma, Quadristruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys, Tingimyrmex, Trichoscapa); Smith, 1979: 1403, 1405, 1408, 1409 (North America Strumigenys, Smithistruma, Trichoscapa, Quadristruma); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 64, 85, 87 (Australia Glamyromyrmex, Quadristruma, Strumigenys); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 28, 66, 76 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand Glamyromyrmex, Quadristruma, Strumigenys); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 344, 346, 360, 378, 380 (Neotropical Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Neostruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys); Bolton, 1995b: 75, 145, 146, 177, 183, 188, 207, 211, 219, 292, 316, 377, 382, 383, 395, 420, 421 (Asketogenys, Cladarogenys, Codiomyrmex, Dorisidris, Dysedrognathus, Epitritus, Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Kyidris, Neostruma, Pentastruma, Quadristruma, Serrastruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys, Tingimyrmex, Trichoscapa); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 413 (Afrotropical, Malagasy checklist); Musfira et al., 2022 10.31610/zsr/2022.31.1.74 PDF: 76 (Sumatra checklist).
Genus Strumigenys references
Mayr, 1865 PDF: 26 (diagnosis); André, 1883b: 398, 402 (Europe & Algeria Strumigenys (Trichoscapa), Epitritus species); Forel, 1886a PDF: 216 (all species key); Mayr, 1887 PDF: 568 (all species key); Emery, 1895d PDF: 325 (North America species key); Emery, 1897c PDF: 574 (New Guinea species key); Forel, 1903a PDF: 707 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 147 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Wheeler, 1908a PDF: 146 (New World species key); Santschi, 1913b PDF: 257 (Afrotropical species key); Emery, 1916a PDF: 205 (Italy species key); Arnold, 1917 PDF: 373 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Mann, 1921 PDF: 467 (Fiji Is species key); Emery, 1924f PDF: 319, 323, 325, 326 (Strumigenys, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Strumigenys (Codiomyrmex), Glamyromyrmex, Pentastruma, Epitritus diagnoses); Smith, 1931c PDF: 691 (North America Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 290 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Brown, 1948e PDF: 108, 112-124 (diagnosis, review of genus, minor genera reviews); Brown, 1949c PDF: 43 (Epitritus diagnosis, review); Brown, 1949d: 8, 21 (Weberistruma species review, Japan, China & Taiwan species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 301 (Nearctic species key); Brown, 1950c PDF: 27 (Glamyromyrmex review); Brown, 1952h PDF: 86 (Serrastruma diagnosis, species revision, key); Brown, 1953g PDF: 20 (Codiomyrmex review), 24 (Weberistruma review), 31 (Smithistruma review), 46 (Smithistruma Nearctic species revision, key), 92 (Smithistruma Neotropical species revision, key), 114 (Smithistruma Indomalayan, Papuan, Oceanean species revision, key), 125 (Afrotropical species revision, key), 130 (Palaearctic species revision, key); Brown, 1954k PDF: 10 (Strumigenys Afrotropical species revision, key); Wilson & Brown, 1956 PDF: 439 (Kyidris species review); Brown, 1958h PDF: 38 (New Zealand species); Brown, 1959b PDF: 1 (Neostruma species review); Kempf, 1959f PDF: 339 (Gymnomyrmex species key); Brown, 1960c PDF: 37 (Strumigenys gundlachi group revision, key); Kempf, 1960f PDF: 447 (Glamyromyrmex Neotropical species key); Kempf, 1960f PDF: 451 (Gymnomyrmex all species key); Brown, 1962b PDF: 79 (Epitritus species key); Brown, 1962c PDF: 238 (Strumigenys Neotropical synopsis, all species key); Brown, 1964b PDF: 183 (supplement to Brown, 1953g PDF Smithistruma revision); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 243, 245 (Smithistruma, Epitritus diagnoses); Bolton, 1972 PDF: 208 (Epitritus all species key); Alayo, 1974 PDF: 19 (Cuba species key); Kempf, 1976c PDF: 43 (additions to Brown, 1962c PDF key); Brown & Boisvert, 1979 PDF: 201 (Pentastruma species review); Bolton, 1983 PDF: 273 (Smithistruma Afrotropical species revision, key), 319 (Trichoscapa review), 320 (Glamyromyrmex Afrotropical species revision, key), 335 (Serrastruma Afrotropical species revision, key), 353 (Cladarogenys review), 354 (Epitritus Afrotropical species revision, key), 358 (Strumigenys Afrotropical species revision, key), 400 (Quadristruma review); Perrault, 1986a PDF: 3 (Gymnomyrmex all species key); Ward, 1988 PDF: 122 (Western Nearctic Smithistruma species key); Terayama & Kubota, 1989 PDF: 780, 787 (Taiwan Strumigenys, Smithistruma species keys); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 15 (synoptic classification); Arakelian & Dlussky, 1991: 150 (former U.S.S.R. species key); Ogata, 1991b PDF: 128 (diagnosis, Japan); Morisita et al., 1992: 63, 68, 76 (Japan Strumigenys, Smithistruma, Epitritus species keys); Dlussky, 1993b PDF: 53 (Fiji Is, Tonga and Samoa Strumigenys species key); Bolton, 1994: 105 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1048 - 1053 (census); Gronenberg, 1996: 2021 (mandible morphology); Terayama et al., 1996 PDF: 328 (Taiwan Smithistruma species key); Lin & Wu, 1996 PDF: 139 (Taiwan Strumigenys species key); Lattke & Goitía, 1997 PDF: 370 (Strumigenys Neotropical all species key); Ogata & Onoyama, 1998: 277 (Japan Smithistruma species key); Shattuck, 1999: 136, 160, 167, 170 (Australia Glamyromyrmex, Quadristruma, Strumigenys, Trichoscapa synopses); Bolton, 1999 PDF: 1667, 1673 (morphology, diagnosis, review of Pyramica, Strumigenys); Xu, 2000d PDF: 297 (China Epitritus species key); Bolton, 2000: 90 (Pyramica all species revision), 95 (Nearctic species key), 137 (Neotropical species key), 272 (Afrotropical species key), 285 (West Palaearctic species key), 342 (Malagasy species key), 372 (Malesian-Oriental-East Palaearctic species key), 472 (Austral species key); Bolton, 2000: 492 (Strumigenys all species revision), 496 (Neotropical-Nearctic species key), 583 (Afrotropical species key), 716 (Malesian-Oriental-East Palaearctic species key), 941 (Austral species key); Fisher, 2000: 614 (Strumigenys Malagasy, all species revision, key); Zhou, 2001a PDF: 78 (China, Guangxi Strumigenys species key); Lin & Wu, 2001 PDF: 166 (Taiwan Strumigenys species key); Zhou & Xu, 2003 PDF: 737 (China Strumigenys species key); Xu & Zhou, 2004 PDF: 441 (China Pyramica species key); Longino, 2006b PDF: 139 (Costa Rica species, additions to Pyramica key); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2007 PDF: 676 (Japan Strumigenys species key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 138, 142 (Taiwan Pyramica, Strumigenys species keys); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 176 (southwestern Australia Strumigenys species key); Eguchi et al., 2011 PDF: 26, 29 (Pyramica, Strumigenys diagnosis, Vietnam synopsis); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 117, 124 (Fiji Is Pyramica, Strumigenys species key); Bharti & Akbar, 2013b PDF: 391 (India Strumigenys species key); Baccaro et al., 2015 10.5281/zenodo.32912 PDF: 260 (genus in Brazil); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 412 (diagnosis); Cantone, 2017 PDF: 239 (brief male diagnosis); Booher et al., 2019 10.11646/zootaxa.4656.2.7 PDF 355 (Hispaniola species key, Strumigenys nitens group species key); Fernández & Serna, 2019 PDF: 874 (Colombia fauna); Pérez-Pedraza & Fernández, 2019 PDF: 1070 (Colombia species key); Sarnat et al., 2019 10.1093/isd/ixz005 PDF: 9 (Fiji Is species key); Silva & Feitosa, 2019 10.1016/j.asd.2019.100877 PDF: 1 (anatomical terminology); Dong & Kim, 2020 10.20362/am.012001 PDF: 19 (Korea species key); Wang et al., 2021 10.3390/insects12010050 PDF: 1 (basimandibular gland); Booher, 2021 10.11646/zootaxa.5061.2.1 PDF: 201 (revision: western North America north of Mexico species), 205 (synopsis), 206 (key to western nearctic species (workers and queens)); Wang et al., 2021 10.1016/j.asd.2021.101063 PDF: 1 (ventral scape gland); Heterick, 2021 10.18195/issn.0313-122x.86.2021.001-245 PDF: 203 (Western Australia species key); Wang et al., 2023 10.1016/j.asd.2023.101246 PDF: 1 (spongiform tissue); Chaul, 2023 10.3390/taxonomy3020016 PDF: 224 (characterization of Strumigenys flavianae group), 228 (modified Bolton, 2000 key); Tang & Guénard, 2023 10.5852/ejt.2023.907.2327 PDF: 1 (South East Asia species revision), 10 (Strumigenys leptothrix-group from Oriental and Sino-Japanese realms), 12 (Strumigenys elegantula, Strumigenys leptothrix, Strumigenys zanderi complexes), 13 (Strumigenys nathistorisoc-group from Oriental and Sino-Japanese realms), 132 (updated key to East Asia species).

Taxon Page Images:

Strumigenys emmae workers are scarcely larger than the sand grains in the soil they inhabit. Archibold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.


Strumigenys lyroessa from Kerala India


// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Juan de Nova Island, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States, United States Virgin Islands, Venezuela
    Asia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Japan, Krakatau Islands, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen
    Europe: Andorra, Austria, Balearic Islands, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, Croatia, Denmark, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom
    Oceania: Australia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Lord Howe Island, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native biogeographic regions (according to species list records):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic

Taxonomic Notes:

Includes the >200 species previously placed in Pyramica.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Strumigenys   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 38, (download) 38 21367
Strumigenys   Lin, C. C. & Wu, W. J., 1996, Revision of the ant genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Taiwan., Chinese Journal of Entomology 16, pp. 137-152: 139-143, (download) 139-143 20244
Strumigenys   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 37, (download) 37 21008
Strumigenys   Eguchi, K., Viet, B. T. & Yamane, S., 2011, Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), Part I - Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmicinae., Zootaxa 2878, pp. 1-61: 29, (download) 29 23462

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