Change View
Cite this page

Citing AntWeb

X

To cite this page, please use the following:

· For print:      Citation: AntWeb. Version 8.81. California Academy of Science, online at https://www.antweb.org. Accessed .

· For web:


Genus: Crematogaster   Lund, 1831 

Classification:

Current Valid Name:



Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Extant: 518 valid species, 260 valid subspecies

Fossil: 3 valid species

Crematogaster Lund, 1831a PDF: 132. Type-species: Formica scutellaris, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1903 PDF: 124. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

[Crematogaster also noted as new in Lund, 1831b: 104.]
[Type-species not Formica acuta Fabricius, 1804, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1912d PDF: 272; this error repeated in, for example, Emery, 1914b PDF: 39; Emery, 1919b PDF: 61; Arnold, 1920a PDF: 482; Emery, 1922c PDF: 128; Gallardo, 1934b PDF: 4; Soulié, 1965 PDF: 78; Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 43.]
[Note: discussion of type designation: Wheeler, 1913a PDF: 78; Donisthorpe, 1941f PDF: 36.]
Crematogaster in Poneridae, Myrmicidae: Smith, 1858a PDF: 134.
Crematogaster in Myrmicidae: Smith, 1871a PDF: 329; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262.
Crematogaster in Myrmicinae: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 468 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 75 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 74 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 22 [Myrmicidae]; Dours, 1873 PDF: 169 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 68 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 464 [Myrmicidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 79 [Myrmicinae].
Crematogaster in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini: Emery, 1877b PDF: 81 [Myrmicidae, Pheidolidae].
Crematogaster as genus: all authors.
[Cremastogaster: incorrect subsequent spelling by Mayr, 1861 PDF: 74; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 403; Roger, 1863b PDF: 36; and many later authors.]
[Note (i): throughout this catalogue the original spelling Crematogaster is used, the incorrect subsequent spelling Cremastogaster is ignored. Discussions of spelling: Emery, 1912d PDF: 272 (footnote); Wheeler, 1913a PDF: 78; Donisthorpe, 1941f PDF: 36; Buren, 1959 PDF: 125. The incorrect spelling is extremely common earlier, but persists as late as Baroni Urbani, 1974a PDF: 233; Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 430; Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 30.]
[Note (ii): all subgenera were given as provisional junior synonyms of Crematogaster by Brown, 1973b PDF: 179-185. The list was repeated by Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 13, with all subgenera listed as junior synonyms. They reverted to subgeneric status in Bolton, 1994: 50; Bolton, 1995b: 25. Subsequent modifications and revisions are recorded in Blaimer, 2012c PDF: 52.]
[Note (iii): the spurious paper by Soulié & Dicko, 1965 PDF: 85, is ignored. This publication merely repeats, inaccurately, the Wheeler, 1922: 828 catalogue of Afrotopical Crematogaster, but treats the subgenera as genera; see catalogue of genus-group names.]
Genus Crematogaster catalogues
Roger, 1863b PDF: 36; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 403; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 464 (Europe); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262 (U.S.A.); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 79; Emery, 1922c PDF: 130, 137, 137, 138, 139, 140, 152, 153, 155, 156, 157 (Crematogaster (Orthocrema), Crematogaster (Crematogaster), Crematogaster (Decacrema), Crematogaster (Xiphocrema), Crematogaster (Physocrema), Crematogaster (Acrocoelia), Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema), Crematogaster (Atopogyne), Crematogaster (Paracrema), Crematogaster (Oxygyne), Crematogaster (Nematocrema)); Wheeler, 1922: 828, 1022 (Afrotropical, Malagasy); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 86 (Asia); Smith, 1951c PDF: 807 (North America); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 81 (Neotropical); Smith, 1979: 1376 (North America); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 60 (Australia); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 22 (Australia); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 338 (Neotropical); Bolton, 1995b: 146; Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 250 (Afrotropical, Malagasy checklist). [Note: world list of species in subgenus Crematogaster (Crematogaster): Bolton, 1995b: 166.]
Genus Crematogaster references
Mayr, 1855 PDF: 468 (diagnosis); Smith, 1858a PDF: 135 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 74 (diagnosis, Europe species key); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 22 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1867a PDF: 103 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1870b PDF: 989 (New World species key); Mayr, 1876 PDF: 107 (Australia species key); Mayr, 1879 PDF: 680 (Asia species key); André, 1883b: 391 (Europe, Algeria species key); Nasonov, 1889: 76 (Russia species key); Forel, 1892l PDF: 528 (Madagascar Crematogaster emmae species group key); Mayr, 1895 PDF: 135 (Africa species key); Forel, 1901j PDF: 334 (subgeneric classification); Forel, 1903a PDF: 679 (India, Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 124 (diagnosis, India, Sri Lanka, Burma species key); Ruzsky, 1905b: 486 (Russian Empire species key); Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 140 (diagnosis); Forel, 1910a PDF: 6 (subgeneric classification); Forel, 1911f PDF: 331 (subgeneric classification); Forel, 1912g PDF: 211 (subgeneric classification); Emery, 1912e: 651 (Palaearctic species key); Forel, 1913l PDF: 1 (subgeneric classification); Santschi, 1913a PDF: 411 (Crematogaster tricolor group, key); Emery, 1914e PDF: 37 (tribe diagnosis (in key)); Emery, 1916a PDF: 156 (Italy species key); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 112 (France, Belgium species key); Santschi, 1918d PDF: 183 (subgenera key); Mann, 1919 PDF: 323 (Solomon Is species key); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 482, 486 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Emery, 1922c PDF: 127 (Crematogaster diagnosis, subgenera key); Emery, 1922c PDF: 130, 137, 137, 138, 139, 140, 152, 153, 155, 156, 157 (Crematogaster (Orthocrema), Crematogaster (Crematogaster), Crematogaster (Decacrema), Crematogaster (Xiphocrema), Crematogaster (Physocrema), Crematogaster (Acrocoelia), Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema), Crematogaster (Atopogyne), Crematogaster (Paracrema), Crematogaster (Oxygyne), Crematogaster (Nematocrema) diagnoses); Wheeler, 1922: 150, 661 (diagnosis, subgenera key); Santschi, 1928b PDF: 31 (subgeneric classification); Menozzi, 1930b PDF: 106 (Somalia species key); Santschi, 1930c PDF: 263 (Japan species key); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 61 (Israel species key); Gallardo, 1934b PDF: 4, 54 (Argentina Crematogaster (Orthocrema), Crematogaster (Neocrema) species keys); Menozzi, 1935a PDF: 112 (Malayo-Papuasian Crematogaster (Orthocrema) species key); Finzi, 1936 PDF: 175 (Egypt species key); Santschi, 1937e PDF: 311 (Palaearctic species key); Menozzi, 1939a PDF: 300 (Himalaya, Tibet species key); Donisthorpe, 1941o PDF: 226 (Crematogaster (Physocrema) species key); Cole, 1942 PDF: 363 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 288 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Creighton, 1945 PDF: 114 (Crematogaster (Rhachiocrema) species key); Enzmann, 1946c PDF: 94 (U.S.A., Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 203 (Nearctic species key); Buren, 1959 PDF: 91 (Nearctic species revision, key); Fromantin & Soulié, 1961 PDF: 92 (subgenera key); Gregg, 1963: 356 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Soulié, 1965 PDF: 77 (genera key); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 159 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Buren, 1968b PDF: 91 (U.S.A. species key); Delage-Darchen, 1973 PDF: 221 (venation); Brown, 1973b PDF: 161 (subgeneric classification critique); Alayo, 1974 PDF: 13 (Cuba species key); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 75 (Kyrgyzstan species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 54 (larvae, review, synthesis); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 47 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 272 (Balkans species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 538 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 81 (Iberian Peninsula species key); Allred, 1982: 439 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 259 (Saudi Arabia species key); Johnson, 1988: 330 (Eastern U.S.A. species key); Dlussky et al., 1990 PDF: 242 (Turkmenistan species key); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 128 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Ogata, 1991b PDF: 124 (diagnosis, Japan); Morisita et al., 1992: 59 (Japan species key); Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 181 (Bulgaria species key); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 43 (Armenia species key); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 346 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1049 (census); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 62 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 328 (Saudi Arabia species key); Seifert, 1996b: 115 (Central Europe species key); Onoyama, 1998 PDF: 228 (Japan species key); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 15 (Portugal species key); Shattuck, 1999: 132 (Australia synopsis); Zhou, 2001a PDF: 73 (China, Guangxi species key); Mackay & Mackay, 2002 PDF: 71 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key); Longino, 2003a PDF: 25 (Costa Rica species key); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 66, 237 (diagnosis, synopsis); Radchenko, 2005b PDF: 192 (North Korea species key); Cagniant, 2005 PDF: 8 (Morocco species key); Seifert, 2007: 115 (North and Central Europe species key); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2008 PDF: 1 (Indochinese Physocrema revision, species key); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2009a PDF: 17 (Crematogaster (Physocrema) all species revision, key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 177 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 146 (south-western Australia species key); Blaimer, 2010 PDF: 7, 14 (Madagascar subgenera and Crematogaster (Decacrema) species keys); Eguchi et al., 2011 PDF: 14 (diagnosis, Vietnam synopsis); Karaman, 2011a PDF: 14 (Southern Europe species key); Blaimer, 2012a PDF: 249 (Madagascar Crematogaster (Oxygyne) species key); Blaimer, 2012b PDF: 34 (Madagascar Crematogaster (Orthocrema) species key); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2012 PDF: 20 (Crematogaster brevis complex key); Blaimer, 2012c PDF: 52 (revision of subgenera); Blaimer, 2012d PDF: 421 (phylogeny); Blaimer & Fisher, 2013a 10.1371/journal.pone.0068082 PDF: 8 (Crematogaster kelleri group key); Blaimer & Fisher, 2013b PDF: 11 (Malagasy subgenera and species group key; Crematogaster degeeri complex key); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2014 PDF: 61 (Crematogaster fraxatrix group species key); Hosoishi, 2015 PDF: 68 (Crematogaster ranavalonae group, Asia species key); Salata & Borowiec, 2015a PDF: 75 (northeast Mediterranean species key); Baccaro et al., 2015 10.5281/zenodo.32912 PDF: 274 (genus in Brazil); Hosoishi, 2015 PDF (Asian Crematogaster ranavalonae group species revision, diagnosis, key); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2015a PDF: 7 (Crematogaster popohana group key); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2016a 10.1111/zoj.12330 PDF: 567 (Asian Crematogaster (Orthocrema) species key); Feldhaar et al., 2016 10.13102/sociobiology.v63i1.949 PDF: 656 (Crematogaster borneensis group key); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 249 (diagnosis); Cantone, 2017 PDF: 195 (brief male diagnosis); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2017 10.5852/ejt.2017.370 PDF: 6 (Crematogaster khmerensis group revision, key); Morgan & Mackay, 2017 PDF: 24 (North America species key); Fernández & Serna, 2019 PDF: 822 (Colombia); Pedraza & Fernández, 2019 PDF: 891 (Colombia species key); Sharaf et al., 2019 10.3897/zookeys.898.37531 PDF: 31 (Arabia species key); Hosoishi & Ogata, 2019 10.6620/ZS.2019.58-11 PDF: 6 (Crematogaster rothneyi group species key); Hosoishi, 2020 10.26107/RBZ-2020-0087 PDF: 760 (Crematogaster ransonneti group key); Heterick, 2021 10.18195/issn.0313-122x.86.2021.001-245 PDF: 166 (Western Australia species key); Ward & Blaimer, 2022 PDF: 897 (evolutionary history, biogeography of Crematogaster scutellaris group), 903 (North America species key), 930 (notes on and location of Crematogaster scutellaris group type specimens).

Taxon Page Images:



Alarm posture in a Crematogaster emeryana acrobat ant, gaster held high and sting extruded. Crematogaster ants do not actually use their stinger to sting; rather, the organ is instead employed as a brush to broadcast volatile chemical signals to nestmates and to smear defensive chemicals on attackers. Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, USA.
Image © Alex Wild. // Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Canary Islands, Central African Republic, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grande Glorieuse, Guinea, Ile du Lys, Ivory Coast, Juan de Nova Island, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macaronesia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
    Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cyprus, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Krakatau Islands, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
    Europe: Albania, Andorra, Balearic Islands, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom
    Oceania: Australia, Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native biogeographic regions (according to species list records):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic

Biology:


Notes:

Visit the Crematogaster of MADAGASCAR page.

References:

For the most recent Nearctic revision of Crematogaster, see: Buren, W. F. 1959. A review of the species of Crematogaster, sensu stricto, in North America (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part I. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 66: 119-134. (Online at http://osuc.biosci.ohio-state.edu/hymenoptera/manage_lit.list_pubs?author=Buren)

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Crematogaster   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 33, (download) 33 21367
Crematogaster   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 22-25, (download) 22-25 20256
Crematogaster   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download) 130 20256
Crematogaster   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 33, (download) 33 21367
Crematogaster   Smith, F., 1858, Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae., London: British Museum: 134-135, (download) 134-135 8127
Crematogaster   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 18-20, (download) 18-20 20256
Crematogaster   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download) 130 20256
Crematogaster   Mohamed, S., Zalat, S. & Fadl, H., 2001, Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and Delta region, Egypt., Egyptian Journal of Natural History 3, pp. 40-61: 50, (download) 50 21622
Crematogaster   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 3, (download) 3 20256
Crematogaster   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 32, (download) 32 21008
Crematogaster   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 25-29, (download) 25-29 20256
Crematogaster   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 4-7, (download) 4-7 20256
Crematogaster   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 150-151, (download) 150-151 20597
Crematogaster   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 66, (download) 66 6175


See something amiss? Send us an email.