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Genus: Heteroponera   Mayr, 1887 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Extant: 28 valid species

Heteroponera Mayr, 1887 PDF: 532. Type-species: Heteroponera carinifrons, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Heteroponera in Ponerinae, Ectatommini: Emery, 1911e PDF: 35; Forel, 1917 PDF: 236; all subsequent authors to the following.
Heteroponera as genus: Brown, 1952h PDF: 70; Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 13; Brown, 1958g PDF: 194; all subsequent authors.
Heteroponera as senior synonym of Anacanthoponera: Brown, 1952k PDF: 70; Brown, 1958g PDF: 194.
Heteroponera as senior synonym of Paranomopone: Brown, 1957k PDF: 112; Brown, 1958g PDF: 194.
Genus Heteroponera references
Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 43 (catalogue); Emery, 1911e PDF: 35 (diagnosis, catalogue as part of Acanthoponera); Wheeler, 1923f PDF: 190 (all species key as part of Acanthoponera); Brown, 1958g PDF: 194, 196 (review of genus, Australia-New Zealand species key, New World species key); Brown, 1958h PDF: 17 (New Zealand species); Kempf, 1962a PDF: 31 (Neotropical species key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 117 (Neotropical catalogue); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 30 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 28 (Australia, New Zealand checklist); Fernández, 1993: 250 (Colombia species key); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1050 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 212 (catalogue); Shattuck, 1999: 186 (Australia synopsis); Arias-Penna & Fernández, 2008 PDF: 113 (Neotropical species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 142 (south-western Australia species key); Taylor, 2011 PDF: 118 (Australia groups and Heteroponera leae group species key); Taylor, 2015b 10.11646/zootaxa.3947.2.1 PDF: 151 (Australasian Heteroponera relicta group revision, species key); Cantone, 2017 PDF: 176 (brief male diagnosis); Feitosa & Prada-Achiardi, 2019 PDF: 676 (Colombia species key)

Taxon Page Images:

Heteroponera imbellis Yandoit, Victoria, Australia.
Image © Alex Wild. // Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela
    Oceania: Australia, New Zealand
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Australasia, Neotropical
  Native biogeographic regions (according to species list records):
    Australasia, Neotropical

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Brown, W. L., 1952, Heteroponera Mayr reinstated (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Psyche 59, pp. 70-70

Heteroponera Mayr ReinstatedHNS (Hymenoptera: FormicidaeHNS) .

- Heteroponera MayrHNS (1887, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 37: 533) has remained suppressed as a synonym of Acanthoponera MayrHNS for many years. Wheeler (1923, loc. cit.) has shown, however that AcanthoponeraHNS can be split into two groups; one group { AcanthoponeraHNS s. str.) having the tarsal claws with an extra, strong tooth and a basal lobe (or tooth), while the second group (Anacanthoponera Wheeler) has the tarsal claws at most with a single, weak median tooth. In this second group, Wheeler included Heteroponera carinifrons MayrHNS, and since HeteroponeraHNS, with the genotype H. carinifronsHNS, has precedence, it must be reinstated as a good genus. Anacanthoponera Wheeler (1923, Psyche, 30: 176, as a subgenus of AcanthoponeraHNS) is a new synonym of HeteroponeraHNS, since the genotype, Ponera dolo RogerHNS, is congeneric with H. carinifronsHNS.

AcanthoponeraHNS is neotropical, and has well developed propodeal teeth and the petiolar apex produced as a long tooth or spine; Kusnezov (in litt.) finds A. mucronataHNS to have 6, 4 palpal segmentation. HeteroponeraHNS is neotropical and Australasian , and the propodeal teeth and dentiform petiolar apex are absent or feebly developed; H. imbellis EmeryHNS has 3, 3 palpal segmentation (my dissection). Until more species can be critically examined, AcanthoponeraHNS and HeteroponeraHNS should be considered as distinct genera. AcanthoponeraHNS appears to be the most generalized living member of the EctatomminiHNS, and is probably close to the stem from which the proceratiines, the myrmicines and ParaponeraHNS arose. - W. L. Brown, Jr., Museum of Comparative Zoology , Harvard University.

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