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Species: Formica truncorum   Fabricius, 1804 

Classification:
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See Also:

Formica truncorum finzii

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2020)

Extant: 1 valid subspecies

Formica truncorum Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 403 (q.) CZECH REPUBLIC. Palearctic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Status as species: Smith, 1858a PDF: 4; Roger, 1863b PDF: 13; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 214; Bondroit, 1917a PDF: 174 (in key); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 60; Bondroit, 1920a PDF: 146; Bondroit, 1920b PDF: 300; Betrem, 1926 PDF: 213 (in key); Stärcke, 1926a PDF: 148 (in key); Lomnicki, 1928 PDF: 8; Teranishi, 1932 PDF: 53; Teranishi, 1934b PDF: 38; Stärcke, 1935a PDF: 269; Stitz, 1939: 344; Menozzi, 1939a PDF: 321 (in key); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 105 (in key); Eidmann, 1941a PDF: 31; Eidmann, 1942a PDF: 253; Holgersen, 1942b PDF: 13; Holgersen, 1943c PDF: 176 (in key); Holgersen, 1944a PDF: 185; Röszler, 1950 PDF: 214; Azuma, 1955 PDF: 80; Betrem, 1960a PDF: 130; Betrem, 1960b: 76 (in key); Dlussky, 1965a PDF: 28; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 307 (redescription); Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 81; Kutter, 1968b: 61; Kutter, 1968c: 206; Pisarski, 1969b: 313; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1970 PDF: 89; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 223; Collingwood, 1971 PDF: 168; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 174 (redescription); Banert & Pisarski, 1972 PDF: 355; Pisarski, 1975: 45; Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 192 (redescription); Kutter, 1977c: 274; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 554 (in key); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 139; Kupyanskaya, 1980 PDF: 105; Onoyama, 1980a PDF: 200; Kupyanskaya, 1986b PDF: 98; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a PDF: 60; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 286 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 82; Gösswald, 1989: 21; Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 192; Morisita et al., 1991: 34; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 270; Radchenko, 1994b: 114 (in key); Douwes, 1995: 97; Bolton, 1995b: 205; Poldi et al., 1995: 8; Gallé et al., 1998: 217; Collingwood & Heatwole, 2002 PDF: 15; Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 76; Imai et al., 2003 PDF: 58; Karaman & Karaman, 2003 PDF: 52; Radchenko, 2005b PDF: 164; Csosz & Markó, 2005 PDF: 232; Bračko, 2006 PDF: 148; Markó et al., 2006 PDF: 68; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 112 (in key); Schultz et al., 2006 PDF: 205; Bračko, 2007 PDF: 20; Radchenko, 2007 PDF: 36; Seifert, 2007: 317; Werner & Wiezik, 2007 PDF: 144; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007 PDF: 233; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 483; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010 PDF: 55; Boer, 2010: 27; Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 59; Czechowski et al., 2012: 199; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 32; Kiran & Karaman, 2012 PDF: 11; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 79 (see note in bibliography); Bračko et al., 2014 PDF: 19; Bharti et al., 2016 PDF: 27; Lebas et al., 2016: 178; Radchenko, 2016: 289; Seifert, 2018: 330.
Senior synonym of Formica simulata: Imai et al., 2003 PDF: 58.
[Note: Roger, 1863b PDF: 13, and Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 450, give Formica truncicola as senior synonym, but Formica truncorum has priority.].
Material of the unavailable name Formica rufa truncicola stitzi referred here by Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 81; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 174; Imai et al., 2003 PDF: 58.
Current subspecies: nominal plus F. t. finzii.
// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: United States
    Asia: China
    Europe: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Palearctic

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174

57. Formica truncorum FabriciusHNS, 1804 Figs. 224-228.

Formica truncorum FabriciusHNS, 1804:403.

Worker. Large workers with head, alitrunk and base of first gaster tergite bright yellowish red, gaster greyish brown covered with long pubescence; smaller workers are usually darker but never with clearly marked black patches as in F. pratensisHNS. Eyes, occiput, genae, gula, scapes and tibiae as well as whole body covered in short erect hairs. Frons with large shallow punctures; frontal triangle shining without punctures or sculpture. Funiculus in larger workers slender with segments two and three twice as long as wide. Lateral clypeal pits deep and rounded. Length: 3.5-9.0 mm.

Queen. Brightly coloured with head and most of alitrunk red or with part of ocellar region and most of scutum brownish. Pilosity and other features as in worker. Length: 8.0-9.5 mm.

Male. Black with appendages and external genitalia entirely yellowish. All surfaces covered with short erect hairs. Punctures coarse and shallow on head and alitrunk; frontal triangle shining without sculpture. Mandibles with three or four teeth. Length: 7.0-9.0 mm.

Figs. 224-227. Formica truncorum FabrHNS. - 224: worker in profile; 225: head of worker in dorsal view; 226: head of queen in dorsal view; 227: head of male in dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution. Locally common throughout Denmark and Fennoscandia, not found in British Isles. - Range: Jura Alps to North Japan, Italy to North Norway.

Biology. This species has large spreading colonies among stones or in tree stumps with loose surface leaf litter sometimes built into a shallow loose mound. This is an aggressive acid squirting species found at the borders of woodland and in stony banks and often particularly abundant on offshore islands. F. truncorumHNS is normally polygynous, sometimes with many small dark headed queens. New colonies may be formed by nest splitting or by the adoption of single large red headed queens by F. fuscaHNS and allied species. Males and queens occur in July and August, latter than with most members of the F. rufaHNS group.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 1 times found in beach, sanddunes, 1 times found in open stony lake shore, 1 times found in Subalpine, rocks and pine trees, 1 times found in Unknown, 1 times found in xerothermous open grassland, sand.

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times ground, 1 times foraging on the ground, 1 times foraging on sand, 1 times foraging.

Collected most commonly using these methods: 4 times search.

Elevations: collected from 1550 - 1750 meters, 1650 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1953-08-04 and 2018-10-18

Type specimens: syntype of Formica rufa truncicolopratensis: casent0911086



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