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Species: Tetramorium bessonii   Forel, 1891 

Classification:
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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2020)

Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) bessonii Forel, 1891c PDF: 156, pl. 4, fig. 13 (w.) MADAGASCAR. Malagasy. Primary type information: MADAGASCAR, Fianarantsoa, Pays des Betsileo, coll. Besson; CASENT0102347; BMNH AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Combination in Xiphomyrmex: Wheeler, 1922: 1031; in Tetramorium: Bolton, 1979 PDF: 141.
// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Madagascar
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Malagasy

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Bolton, B., 1979, The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region and in the New World., Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 38, pp. 129-181

Tetramorium bessoniHNS Forel

(Fig. 9)

Tetramorium {Xiphomyrmex) bessonii ForelHNS, 1891 a: 156, pl. 4, figs 13,13 a. Syntype workers, Madagascar: Pays des Betsileo, Fianarantsoa (Besson) (MHN, Geneva) [examined]. Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) bessonii var. orientale ForelHNS, 1895 a: 247. Holotype worker, Madagascar: Imerina oriental (Sikora) (MHN, Geneva) [examined]. Syn. n.

Worker. TL 4.0 - 4.2, HL 0.88 - 0.90, HW 0.82 - 0.86, CI 90 - 95, SL 0.60 - 0.70, SI 74 - 80, PW 0.62 - 0.66, AL 1.08 - 1.14 (6 measured).

Mandibles striate, median clypeal and cephalic carinae well defined and distinct. Frontal carinae strongly developed but antennal scrobes weak. Propodeum armed with a pair of stout spines, the metapleural lobes low and rounded. In profile the petiole strongly antero-posteriorly compressed, thicksquamiform, the node much higher than long. Postpetiole also somewhat compressed. In dorsal view both petiole and postpetiole much broader than long. Clypeus with median and one or two pairs of lateral carinae, the spaces between them feebly or not sculptured. Dorsum of head with median carina and a few widely spaced, weak longitudinal rugulae on each side between median and frontal carinae. These rugulae variable, may be almost completely effaced to quite distinct. Ground-sculpture between the rugulae a very weak, superficial punctulation, again nearly effaced in some individuals. Dorsal alitrunk, pedicel and gaster unsculptured or at most with a few very faint rugulae in the vicinity of the metanotal groove. Erect to suberect hairs present on all dorsal surfaces of head and body but very sparse or (rarely) absent from the first gastral tergite. Colour a uniform medium-brown.

This species is closest related to humblotiHNS, an African species which is known to occur on the Comoro Islands but has not yet been reported from Madagascar itself. The two are separated by sculpture, which on the head of humblotiHNS is coarse and by the presence in bessoniHNS of a number of erect or suberect hairs on the dorsal alitrunk, which is usually completely hairless in humblotiHNS.

Material examined

Madagascar: La Mandraka (W. L. & D. E. Brown); Prov. Diego S., above Sakaramy (W. L. & D. E. Brown).

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 53 times found in Savannah grassland, 29 times found in urban/garden, 25 times found in grassland, 15 times found in Uapaca woodland, 12 times found in spiny forest/thicket, 8 times found in tropical dry forest, 4 times found in Bismarckia woodland, 5 times found in savannah woodland, 1 times found in savannah shrubland, 3 times found in Shrubland, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 62 times ground forager(s), 17 times ground nest, 20 times ex soil, 14 times under stone, 9 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 9 times on ground, 5 times sifted litter, 5 times pitfall trap, 2 times on low vegetation, 1 times ex rotten log, 1 times ex dead branch above ground, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 18 times SD 20 digging sample transect, 10m, 8 times MW 20 sample transect, 10m, 4 times pitfall trap, PF 20 tube sample transect, 10m, 4 times PF 20 tube sample transect, 10m, 3 times Malaise trap, 4 times MW 50 sample transect, 5m, 1 times pitfall trap, PF 25 cup sample transect, 10m, 4 times Malaise, 1 times pitfall trap, PF 13 cup sample transect, 5m, 2 times Digging, 2 times pitfall trap, PF 50 traps, 11 cm dbh with water, soap, formalin, nonlinear placement, ...

Elevations: collected from 25 - 1951 meters, 1030 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1986-10-09 and 2012-03-08

Type specimens: type of Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) bessonii: casent0104606



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