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Species: Temnothorax salvini   (Forel, 1899) 

Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Macromischa salvini Forel, 1899e PDF: 57, pl. 3, fig. 18 (w.) PANAMA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Type-material: lectotype worker (by designation of Prebus, 2021b 10.7717/peerj.11514 PDF: 411). Type-locality: lectotype Panama: Chiriquí, Volcán de Chiriquí, 1220–1830 m, #99-304, BMNH (E) 1014995 (Champion). Type-depository: BMNH. Type-specimen: CASENT0901796 (lectotype; leftmost specimen). (Source: Prebus, 2021b 10.7717/peerj.11514 PDF: 411.) Secondary type information: Paratype-material: 1 paralectotype worker (severely damaged). Paratype-locality: same as for lectotype. Paratype-depository: MHNG. Paratype-specimen: CASENT0908989. (Source: Prebus, 2021b 10.7717/peerj.11514 PDF: 412.) AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Lectotype designation: Prebus, 2021b 10.7717/peerj.11514 PDF: 411.
Combination in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 272.
Status as species: Wheeler, 1908a PDF: 141 (in key); Mann, 1920b PDF: 410 (in key); Emery, 1924f PDF: 247; Wheeler, 1937b PDF: 464; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 138; Baroni Urbani, 1978b PDF: 494 (redescription); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 352; Bolton, 1995b: 244; Bolton, 2003 PDF: 272; Prebus, 2021b 10.7717/peerj.11514 PDF: 41 (in key), 411 (diagnosis, redescription).
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Southern Mexico to Panama. Costa Rica: Cordillera de Talamanca and Cordillera Volcanica Central.


This species is a montane specialist. One of the INBio parataxonomists, A. Picado, collected a worker at 2400m on Cerro Gemelos in the C. de Talamanca. The ALAS project collected abundant workers at the 2000m site on the Barva Transect in Braulio Carrillo National Park. It was one of the most abundant species there (in a place where ants in general were rarely seen). The lowest elevation record in Costa Rica is 1800m on the Barva Transect. The LLAMA project has found this species to be a common cloud forest inhabitant throughout Central America. The lowest elevation record so far is 1200m at a site in Honduras.

In Costa Rica I collected the species nesting in the base of a bromeliad in an old treefall, in the live stems of an epiphytic Araliaceae in a treefall, and under an epiphyte mat in the same treefall. The latter two collections both contained single dealate queens and most of the nest contents were examined, suggesting that the species is monogynous. Elsewhere in Central America I have collected it in dead or live stems. Nests may lack a queen, suggesting polydomy. In the Cordillera de Chiapas it was an abundant arboreal ant with populous colonies. On opening nests, workers were relatively aggressive and stung, leaving a moderate but lasting pain.


Identification in Costa Rica: antennae 12-segmented; petiolar peduncle longer than node; dorsal profile of mesosoma forming an unbroken, somewhat flat convexity; face and mesosoma coarely rugose; face and mesosoma black; petiole, postpetiole, and anterior portion of fourth abdominal tergite contrastingly brown; face and dorsal mesosoma with abundant flexuous pilosity.


There is considerable geographic variation in length of propodeal spines, coloration, and degree of development of anteroventral petiolar tooth.


Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 17 times found in montane wet forest, 2 times found in montane wet forest treefall, 1 times found in mature wet forest, 1 times found in road through cloud forest and pasture, forest young to old 2nd growth, near river, 1 times found in edge of second growth rainforest, 1 times found in montane rainforest, 1 times found in oak forest, 1 times found in along main road through cloud forest and pasture.

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times under epiphytes, 1 times ex live stem Araliaceae, 1 times nest in epiphytes, 3 times Sobre Vegetacion, 2 times beating veg., 1 times bajo de M/11, 1 times on low vegn., 1 times forager, 1 times ex dead twig of cassia, 1 times branchfall.

Collected most commonly using these methods: 13 times Malaise, 4 times search, 3 times Sweeping, 2 times beating, 1 times flight intercept trap.

Elevations: collected from 1200 - 2400 meters, 1923 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1985-08-04 and 2015-06-29

Type specimens: syntype of Temnothorax salvini: casent0901796, casent0908989

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