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Species: Pseudomyrmex elongatus   (Mayr, 1870) 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Pseudomyrma elongata Mayr, 1870a PDF: 413 (w.) COLOMBIA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Combination in Leptalea: Smith, 1951c PDF: 788.
Status as species: Smith, 1877b PDF: 61; Emery, 1890b PDF: 65; Forel, 1893j PDF: 390; Emery, 1895d PDF: 269; Forel, 1899b PDF: 88; Wheeler, 1905c PDF: 85 (redescription); Forel, 1906d PDF: 228; Forel, 1908a PDF: 65; Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 562; Wheeler, 1911a PDF: 22; Forel, 1911g PDF: 278; Forel, 1912h PDF: 23; Santschi, 1913h PDF: 36; Wheeler, 1913b PDF: 484; Wheeler & Mann, 1914 PDF: 18; Mann, 1916 PDF: 427; Wheeler, 1918b PDF: 24; Mann, 1920b PDF: 405; Emery, 1921c PDF: 32; Wheeler, 1922e PDF: 4; Menozzi, 1927c PDF: 267; Smith, 1930a PDF: 2; Wheeler, 1932a PDF: 4; Wheeler, 1934f PDF: 139; Menozzi, 1935b PDF: 191; Wheeler, 1935g: 16; Wheeler, 1942 PDF: 165; Creighton, 1950a PDF: 79; Smith, 1951c PDF: 788; Creighton, 1957b PDF: 18; Smith, 1958c PDF: 112; Wilson, 1964b PDF: 4; Smith, 1967a PDF: 348; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 217; Kempf & Lenko, 1976 PDF: 62; Smith, 1979: 1346; Ward, 1985b PDF: 227 (redescription); Ward, 1989a PDF: 419 (redescription); Deyrup et al., 1989 PDF: 94; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 375; Ward, 1992 PDF: 81 (in table); Bolton, 1995b: 372; Ward, 1999b PDF: 519 (redescription); Deyrup, 2003 PDF: 46; Wild, 2007b PDF: 40; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF: 264; Bezděčková et al., 2015 PDF: 125; Deyrup, 2017: 41; Ward, 2019 PDF: 1103.
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Venezuela
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Neotropical

Distribution Notes:

Pseudomyrmex elongatus is a widely distributed and common species, occurring from Mexico to Argentina, with an outlying (and possibly introduced) population in Florida. The records of P. elongatus from Texas (Ward, 1985) are in error: they refer to P. caeciliae (see Ward, 1989).


Pseudomyrmex elongatus is a generalist inhabitant of dead twigs of woody plants. It has been collected in mangroves, old fields, along roadsides, and in forested habitats ranging from tropical dry forest to secondary and primary rain forest. Specific nest-site records include dead twigs of Avicennia germinans, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Baccharis halimifolia, Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis sp., Ficus spp., Vernonia patens, Terminalia catappa, Tecoma stans, Zanthoxylum culantrillo, Gliricidia sepium, Inga sp., Helicteres sp., Coccoloba sp., and Sapium sp. It has also been recorded nesting in live branches of Pithecellobium saman, Cecropia, Cordia alliodora, and Triplaris cumingiana. Thus, it appears that P. elongatus will occupy ant-plant domatia  opportunistically.


Among members of the oculatus group (see Ward, 1989), workers of elongatus can be recognized by the
following combination of features:
  • relatively small size (HW 0.56-0.68)
  • head densely punctate and predominantly opaque
  • eyes relatively long (REL 0.53-0.59; REL2 0.73-0.82)
  • petiole relatively short (PLI 0.79-1.09), with rounded dorsolateral margination

Taxonomic Notes:

P. elongatus is a common and widespread species whose key features are its relatively small size (HW 0.56-0.68); densely punctate and predominantly opaque head; long eyes (REL > 0.52, REL2 > 0.72); and relatively short, high petiole (PLI > 0.78).


Ward, P. S. 1985. The Nearctic species of the genus Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 21: 209-246.

Ward, P. S. 1989. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaestiones Entomologicae 25: 393-468.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55

elongatus (MayrHNS 1870a).

Canindeyú, Central, Ñeembucú, Pte. Hayes, San Pedro (ALWC, IFML, INBP).

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 39 times found in red mangrove, 23 times found in tropical moist forest, 22 times found in rainforest, 20 times found in rainforest edge, 22 times found in edge of second-growth rainforest, 18 times found in tropical dry forest, 9 times found in mangrove, 5 times found in second-growth rainforest, 8 times found in CC 1500 m., 5 times found in roadside, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 55 times on low vegetation, 27 times ex dead twig, 14 times beating vegetation, 18 times nest in twig above ground, 10 times Malaise trap, 9 times copa de árbol, 6 times ex dead twig of Ficus, 6 times on tree trunk, 7 times recent tree-fall, 2 times ex dead twig of Gliricidia sepium, 4 times on recently felled trees, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 29 times Fogging, 19 times search, 16 times Beating, 15 times Malaise, 11 times canopy fogging, 7 times direct collection, 5 times beating low vegetation, 7 times malaise trap, 5 times hand collecting, 4 times yellow bowl trap, 00 times collected manually on live tree bole within Ft. Jefferson, 10, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 1269 meters, 264 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1906-01-01 00:00:00.0 and 2021-02-09 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: alliodorae Wheeler syntype series: casent0841848; Lectotype of Pseudomyrmex elongatus: casent0915840; syntype of Pseudomyrma elongata tandem: casent0907537

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