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Species: Pseudomyrmex cubaensis   (Forel, 1901) 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Pseudomyrma elongata var. cubaensis Forel, 1901j PDF: 342 (w.) CUBA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Forel, 1913m PDF: 215 (q.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1956 PDF: 384 (l., misidentified as Pseudomyrmex elongatus)
Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Creighton, 1957b PDF: 18
Status as species: Ward, 1985b PDF: 226 (redescription); Ward, 1989a PDF: 413 (redescription); Deyrup et al., 1989 PDF: 94; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 374; Ward, 1992 PDF: 80 (in table); Bolton, 1995b: 372; Deyrup, 2003 PDF: 46; Wild, 2007b PDF: 40; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF: 264; Bezděčková et al., 2015 PDF: 125; Deyrup, 2017: 40; Lubertazzi, 2019 10.3099/MCZ-43.1 PDF: 163; Ward, 2019 PDF: 1103.
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Argentina, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States, Venezuela
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Neotropical

Distribution Notes:

Pseudomyrmex cubaensis is distributed from southeastern United States (Florida), the Caribbean and Mexico, south to Argentina.


In the Caribbean region, colonies of P. cubaensis occupy dead stems of various woody and herbaceous plants (Ward, 1985), often in littoral environments. Mainland populations come from a variety of habitats, including tropical dry forest, savannah, roadside verge, second-growth lowland rain forest, rain forest edge and montane rain forest edge. Nesting habits of these mainland populations are probably also generalized, but unfortunately most records consist of foraging workers rather than nest series.


Among members of the oculatus group (see Ward, 1989), workers of cubaensis can be recognized by the following combination of features:
  • medium size (HW 0.65-0.78)
  • punctate-sublucid head; at least some punctures separated by half their diameters or more, especially between the ocelli and compound eye, and immediately posterior to compound eye
  • relatively short eyes (REL2 0.65-0.76)
  • moderately broad fore femur (FI 0.41-0.50)
  • petiole with rounded dorsolateral margination

Taxonomic Notes:

P. cubaensis can be diagnosed minimally by the combination of medium size (HW 0.65-0.78); a punctate-sublucid head; relatively short eyes (REL2 0.65-0.76); moderately broad fore femur (FI  0.41-0.50); and petiole with rounded dorsolateral margination. The largest workers of P. cubaensis from South America overlap in size with the smallest workers of P. curacaensis; they are distinguished from the latter by the possession of a broader fore femur, longer head, flatter occipital margin, shorter funicular segments, and gentler dorsolateral margination of the petiole. At the lower limits of its size range, P. cubaensis can be difficult to distinguish from P. urbanus. Workers of the latter have broader fore femora and longer eyes for a given head width, compared to P. cubaensis (see scatter plots in Ward, 1989). Workers of P. cubaensis differ from those of P. elongatus by their larger average size, shorter eyes and lower petiole height in the region of size overlap, and sublucid head and mesosoma.


Ward, P. S. 1985. The Nearctic species of the genus Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 21: 209-246.

Ward, P. S. 1989. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaestiones Entomologicae 25: 393-468.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 25 times found in red mangrove, 12 times found in rainforest, 10 times found in mangrove, 7 times found in tropical dry forest, 6 times found in rainforest edge, 5 times found in roadside vegetation, 5 times found in tropical moist forest, 3 times found in CES 400, 6 times found in in red mangrove, 4 times found in dry forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 18 times on low vegetation, 8 times ex Cordia alliodora, 9 times Malaise trap, 10 times ex dead twig, 1 times recently felled Carapa guianensis, foragers, 3 times copa de árbol, 4 times beating vegetation, 3 times ex dead twig of Cassia fistula, 3 times in dead stick, 3 times ex Cladium culm, 3 times dead twig above ground, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 20 times Search, 14 times Fogging, 15 times Malaise, 5 times Beating, 3 times direct collection, 1 times beating vegetation (3 hours), 3 times MT, 1 times Hand, Malaise times Arm, 1 times at u-v light, 2 times light trap, ...

Elevations: collected from 2 - 1800 meters, 234 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1904-05-19 00:00:00.0 and 2020-03-09 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: syntype of Pseudomyrmex cubaensis: casent0907536

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