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Species: Pheidole specularis   Wilson, 2003 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Pheidole specularis Wilson, 2003a: 510, figs. (s.w.) COSTA RICA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Southern Mexico to Costa Rica.



Occurs in mature wet forest habitats; nests in dead wood on forest floor, opportunistically in plant cavities, and under epiphytes; recruits to baits and extrafloral nectaries.



COI records on BOLD show a clade of four clusters: 1 from Chiapas and central Honduras, 1 from SE Honduras and NE Nicaragua, 1 from NW Costa Rica, and one from S Nicaragua and E Costa Rica. There are no known morphological correlates of these clusters, and there are no known cases of sympatry.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Wilson, E. O., 2003, Pheidole in the New World. A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Pheidole specularisHNS new species

Types Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard.

Etymology L specularisHNS, of a mirror, alluding to the shiny gaster.

diagnosis Similar to chalcaHNS, daphneHNS, floridanaHNS, nebulosaHNS, quercicolaHNS, and stomachosaHNS, differing as follows.

Major: mostly reddish yellow; head in full-face view subrectangular; posterior dorsal profile of head flat, not convex; premesonotal profile raised, semicircular; humeri from above subangular, extending beyond rest of pronotum below and only moderately prominent, along with mesonotal convexity in dorsal-oblique view; propodeal spines robust, more than half as long as the propodeal basal face anterior to them; all of mesosoma and most of dorsal surface of head foveolate and opaque; gaster completely smooth.

Minor: head subrectangular in side view; occiput broad and slightly concave; propodeal spines robust and half as long as propodeal basal face; all of head, mesosoma, and gaster foveolate and opaque; gaster completely smooth and shiny.

Measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 0.82, HL 0.88, SL 0.40, EL 0.10, PW 0.44.

Paratype minor: HW 0.44, HL 0.46, SL 0.36, EL 0.10, PW 0.30.

Color Major: all of body and appendages medium reddish yellow except for gaster, which is brownish yellow. Minor: body and mandibles medium reddish yellow, rest of appendages clear medium yellow.

Range Atlantic slope to 1200 m and Pacific lowlands, Costa Rica (j. T. Longino 1997).

biology The species occurs in both lowland and montane rainforest, where the colonies nest both in dead wood on the forest floor and in live plant cavities and under epiphytes; workers have been observed attending extrafloral nectarines (Longino 1997).

Figure Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor. COSTA RICA: Arboretum, La Selva Biological Station, near Puerto Viejo, Heredia (Stefan Cover). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 187 times found in mature wet forest, 120 times found in lowland rainforest, 92 times found in montane wet forest, 58 times found in tropical rainforest, 50 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 49 times found in 2º wet forest, 37 times found in tropical wet forest, 40 times found in tropical moist forest, 32 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 30 times found in 2º lowland tropical rainforest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 590 times ex sifted leaf litter, 138 times at bait, 54 times Hojarasca, 26 times sifted litter, 1 times nest in dead wood, 4 times Primary forest, 3 times bajo de M/01, 1 times ex stems Piper cenocladum, 3 times Primary, 1 times nest in dead stem in litter, 1 times Nest in bulbous-based Tillandsia, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 497 times miniWinkler, 145 times baiting, 64 times Winkler, 70 times MaxiWinkler, 39 times Mini Winkler, 31 times Berlese, 7 times search, 15 times flight intercept trap, 5 times Search & Berles, 7 times Lure/Bait, 8 times Malaise, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1800 meters, 375 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1969-08-07 00:00:00.0 and 2020-02-15 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: paratype Pheidole specularis: jtlc000016534

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