Current View: Bolton World Catalog
Change View
Cite this page

Citing AntWeb


To cite this page, please use the following:

· For print:      Citation: AntWeb. Version 8.95.1. California Academy of Science, online at Accessed .

· For web:

Species: Pheidole rugiceps   Wilson, 2003 

Download Data

Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Pheidole rugiceps Wilson, 2003a: 620, figs. (s.w.) COSTA RICA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Primary type material: holotype major worker. Primary type locality: Costa Rica: Heredia, La Selva Biological Station, nr Puerto Viejo (E.O. Wilson). Primary type depository: MCZC. Secondary type information: Secondary type material: 1 paratype major worker, 1 paratype minor worker. Secondary type locality: same as for holotype. Secondary type depository: MCZC. Type notes: Details of paratype castes and their numbers are not given. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Belize, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Southern Mexico to Amazonian Peru, Trinidad.



This is a very common species in Costa Rica. It inhabits mature wet forest floor where it nests in dead wood. Workers commonly recruit to baits on the forest floor.



BOLD specimens from Costa Rica northward cluster tightly. Specimens from BCI, Panama, form a separate sister cluster. A specimen from Ecuador is sister to above two.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Wilson, E. O., 2003, Pheidole in the New World. A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Pheidole rugicepsHNS new species

Types Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard.

Etymology L rugicepsHNS, wrinkle- or crease-headed, denoting the completely carinulate surface of the head.

Diagnosis Major: dorsal surface of the head except for clypeus and frontal triangle completely carinulate and foveolate; sides of the mesosoma and waist foveolate; gaster smooth and shiny; postpetiolar node laterally angulate.

Minor: head other than clypeus and frontal triangle, all of mesosoma, and sides of waist foveolate; occiput narrowed but lacking nuchal collar.

Longino (1997) describes the considerable geographic variation he found within Costa Rica as follows: "the shiny patch on dorsum of promesonotum is most developed on Atlantic slope specimens, is reduced on some Pacific slope specimens (Carara at 500 m, Rancho Quemado on the Osa), and absent on many Pacific slope specimens (Corcovado, Manuel Antonio, Carara at 30 m). Correlated with the reduction of the dorsal shiny spot is a change in color from dark brown to orange." I have placed light reddish brown specimens from the Arima Valley, Trinidad (600-700 m), light reddish brown specimens from Tingo Maria, Huanuco, Amazonian Peru, and reddish yellow ("orange") specimens from Cuzco Amazonico, Madre de Dios, further south in Amazonian Peru, as more farflung geographic variants of the same species.

Measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 0.90, HL 0.92, SL 0.64, EL 0.14, PW 0.42. Paratype minor: HW 0.44, HL 0.54, SL 0.64, EL 0.10, PW 0.28.

Color Major: type series are dark, almost blackish brown, with a contrasting medium yellow fringe on the anterior rim of the head capsule, as shown; appendages plain medium to brownish yellow.

Minor: in type series, body dark brown except for slightly contrasting narrow anterior strip on the head capsule; scape and legs except tarsi light brown; funiculi and tarsi brownish yellow. Geographic variation that departs from these color patterns is described in the Diagnosis above.

Range Widespread in Costa Rica (Longino 1997), also recorded from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Trinidad, and Amazonian Peru.

Biology Nests in pieces of rotting wood on floor of mature wet forest (in Costa Rica, E. O. Wilson, unpublished and J. T. Longino 1997; and in Cuzco Amazonico, Peru, Stefan Cover). Winged queens were found in a nest at Tingo Maria, Huanuco, Peru, during 9-12 March by W. L. Brown and W. Sherbrooke.

Figure Upper: holotype, major. Above the mesosoma of the holotype is shown the outline of a paratype mesosoma, to illustrate variation in the propodeal angle within the same nest series. Lower: paratype, minor. COSTA RICA: La Selva Biological Station, near Puerto Viejo, Heredia (E. O. Wilson). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 300 times found in mature wet forest, 262 times found in tropical rainforest, 98 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 24 times found in wet forest, 71 times found in lowland rainforest, 60 times found in rainforest, 59 times found in tropical moist forest, 45 times found in tropical wet forest, 47 times found in lowland wet forest, 35 times found in montane wet forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 947 times ex sifted leaf litter, 183 times at bait, 32 times Hojarasca, 26 times sifted litter, 2 times leaf litter, 7 times ex sifted litter, 1 times Hojarasca., 3 times Ex sifted leaf litter., 4 times Primary forest, 3 times pecan sandie bait, 1 times in dead wood on ground, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 790 times miniWinkler, 92 times Winkler, 191 times baiting, 123 times MaxiWinkler, 15 times Berlese, 28 times Mini Winkler, 8 times bait, 3 times Search & Berles, 4 times Lure/Bait, 4 times flight intercept trap, 1 times Foso, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1560 meters, 240 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1973-09-04 00:00:00.0 and 2022-01-17 00:00:00.0

Type specimens:

See something amiss? Send us an email.
Log In to see maps.