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Species: Pheidole rectispina   Wilson, 2003 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Pheidole rectispina Wilson, 2003a: 495, figs. (s.w.) COSTA RICA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Primary type material: holotype major worker. Primary type locality: Costa Rica: Heredia, La Selva Biological Station, nr Puerto Viejo (E.O. Wilson). Primary type depository: MCZC. Secondary type information: Secondary type material: 1 paratype minor worker. Secondary type locality: same as for holotype. Secondary type depository: MCZC. Type notes: Details of paratype castes and their numbers are not given. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Southern Mexico to Costa Rica, possibly Panama. The distribution appears to abruptly end in northern Costa Rica, with no records from southern Costa Rica in spite of abundant sampling. Collections from a site in Darien, Panama are tentatively identified as P. rectispina but have not been sequenced.


This species inhabits mature wet forest from sea-level to lower cloud forest. It is moderately abundant in Winkler samples and at baits on the forest floor. Nests have been found in dead wood on the ground and in shallow chambers in clay soil.


COI records on BOLD show a clade of seven clusters: 1 from Chiapas, 1 from central Honduras, 1 from north coastal Honduras, 1 from SE Honduras and NE Nicaragua, 1 from south central Nicaragua, 1 from NW Costa Rica, and 1 from  eastern Costa Rica. There are no known morphological correlates of these clusters, and there are no known cases of sympatry.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Wilson, E. O., 2003, Pheidole in the New World. A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Pheidole rectispinaHNS new species

Types Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard.

etymology L rectispinaHNS, upright spine.

diagnosis Similar in various traits to bilimekiHNS, floridanaHNS, hazenaeHNS, rectilumaHNS, rectisentisHNS, rectitrudis, sospesHNS, and stomachosaHNS, differing as follows.

Major: propodeal spine half as long as propodeal basal face and perpendicular to it; humeri low and subangulate; mesonotal convexity present; postpetiole from above elliptical, with angulate lateral margins; all of dorsal surface of head except occipital lobes, frontal triangle, and midclypeus carinulate; all of mesosoma and most of head and waist foveolate and opaque; anterior fringe of first gastral tergite shagreened.

Minor: propodeal spine half as long as the propodeal face and vertical on it; postpetiolar node somewhat depressed; occiput broad, its margin concave; all of head and mesosoma foveolate and opaque, no rugoreticulum and almost no carinulae.

Measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 1.00, HL 1.14, SL 0.56, EL 0.14, PW 0.50.

Paratype minor: HW 0.44, HL 0.50, SL 0.46, EL 0.08, PW 0.30.

Color Major: dark, even blackish brown.

Minor: body medium brown, appendages yellowish brown.

Range Atlantic slope of Costa Rica from lowlands to montane forest (Longino 1997); and Belize (Hummingbird Gap, near Stann; Stewart Peck).

biology Occurs on the floor of primary rainforest.

figure Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor. COSTA RICA: La Selva Biological Station, near Puerto Viejo, Heredia (E. O. Wilson). Scale bars = 1 mm.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 213 times found in cloud forest, 90 times found in montane wet forest, 58 times found in mature wet forest, 64 times found in tropical rainforest, 28 times found in tropical wet forest, 23 times found in 2º lowland tropical rainforest, 16 times found in montane rainforest, 16 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 13 times found in lowland rainforest, 7 times found in 2º wet forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 404 times ex sifted leaf litter, 134 times at bait, 47 times Hojarasca, 9 times ex sifted litter from forest floor, 1 times nest in soil, 1 times nest in rotten stem, 6 times sifted litter, 2 times ex sifted litter, 2 times Primary forest, 1 times nest in rotten wood, 1 times nest in duff, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 306 times miniWinkler, 129 times baiting, 75 times MaxiWinkler, 48 times Winkler, 43 times Mini Winkler, 20 times Berlese, 7 times search, 7 times bait, 3 times Lure/Bait, 1 times Search & Berles, 2 times Pitfall, ...

Elevations: collected from 15 - 1685 meters, 851 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1986-07-10 00:00:00.0 and 2022-01-13 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: Not Provided: casent0713578, casent0713579; paratype Pheidole rectispina: jtlc000016509

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