Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)
Ponera sulcata Smith, 1858a PDF
: 99 (w.) BRAZIL (Amazonas). Neotropic. Primary type information: Type-material: 2 syntype workers. Type-locality: Brazil: Amazonas, Ega (= Tefé), “58/6” (H.W. Bates
). Type-depository: BMNH. AntCat AntWiki HOL
Status as species: Roger, 1861a PDF
: 18; Mayr, 1863a PDF
: 450; Mayr, 1886c PDF
: 358; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF
: 26; Forel, 1895b PDF
: 113; Emery, 1896g PDF
: 51; Forel, 1899b PDF
: 8; Emery, 1911e PDF
: 45; Mann, 1916 PDF
: 407; Borgmeier, 1923
: 61; Brown, 1958g PDF
: 229, 329; Kempf, 1961b PDF
: 492; Kempf, 1972b PDF
: 115; Lattke, 1990b PDF
: 21; Brandão, 1991 PDF
: 345; Bolton, 1995b
: 211; Lattke, 1995 PDF
: 188; Lattke et al., 2004 PDF
: 349; Wild, 2007b PDF
: 27; Lattke et al., 2007 PDF
: 262 (in key); Lattke et al., 2008 PDF
: 99; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF
: 255; Feitosa, 2015c
: 98; Guénard & Economo, 2015 10.11646/zootaxa.4040.2.8
: 226; Feitosa & Prada-Achiardi, 2019 PDF
: 673; Camacho et al., 2020 https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4747.3.2 PDF
: 460 (in key).
Distribution: Geographic regions
(According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists): Americas: Belize
, Costa Rica
, French Guiana
, Venezuela Biogeographic regions
(According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists): Neotropical
Mexico to tropical South America (Lattke 1995). Costa Rica: La Selva and Osa Peninsula.
This species inhabits lowland rainforest, and is known from isolated workers, usually encountered in fresh treefalls or Malaise traps. Relative to the morphologically similar G. tornata, it appears to be more arboreal. In contrast to G. tornata, G. sulcata is rarely collected in Winkler samples.
Promesonotal suture absent; scapes surpass margin of vertex when laid back; mandibles smoothly curving such that basal and apical margins form a continuous convexity; head in back of antennal insertions black or nearly so; mandibles straw yellow, contrasting sharply with black of cranium; mesosoma, node and gaster varying from black to yellowish-red; eyes relatively large and elongate (eye length = 0.36, width = 0.23, n=2 workers).
Over the full geographic range it is difficult to separate G. sulcata
and G. tornata
into two discrete forms, which led Lattke to synonymize them. However, at this point DNA barcoding is confirming that in Central America there are two broadly sympatric species. Gnamptogenys sulcata
always has strongly contrasting ivory-colored mandibles that contrast with the dark face, and the eyes are relatively larger and more elongate. Gnamptogenys tornata
is highly variable in color but never seems to have ivory-colored mandibles, and the eye is smaller and less elongate. Measurements are needed to confirm this, but it looks pretty consistent when I looked through a few dozen collections from throughout Central America.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1958. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. II. Tribe Ectatommini (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 118:175-362.
Gentry, A. H. 1990. Herbarium taxonomy versus field knowledge; is there an attainable solution? Flora Malesiana Bulletin Special Volume 1:31-35.
Lattke, J. E. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Gnamptogenys in the New World (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 4:137-193.
Smith, F. 1858. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the British Museum. VI. Formicidae. 216pp., 14 pls.
Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)
Treatment Citation: Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55
sulcata (F. SmithHNS 1858).
Central, Guairá, Misiones, Pte. Hayes (ALWC, IFML, INBP).
Specimen Habitat Summary
Found most commonly in these habitats: 3 times found in lowland tropical rain forest, 6 times found in rainforest, 3 times found in tropical wet forest, 2 times found in rainforest edge, 2 times found in montane wet forest, 1 times found in Garden, 1 times found in Humid chaco, 1 times found in second-growth rainforest edge, 1 times found in in rainforest, 1 times found in secondary lowland rainforest, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 5 times on low vegetation, 5 times Malaise trap, 2 times stray foragers, 3 times ex sifted leaf litter, 1 times foragers on ground, 2 times beating vegetation, 1 times strays, 1 times on vegetation, 1 times on garden path, 1 times LeafLitter, 1 times ground foragers, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 8 times Malaise, 3 times hand collecting, 4 times search, 3 times beating, 3 times Winkler, 2 times direct collection, 1 times Berlese, 1 times Flight intercept pan trap, 1 times Hand collection, 1 times beating vegetation (1 hour), 1 times Winkler48h, ...
Elevations: collected from 5 - 1260 meters, 383 meters average
Collect Date Range: collected between 1936-07-20 and 2021-05-18
Type specimens: syntype of Ectatomma sulcatum cearensis: casent0907190; syntype of Gnamptogenys lineata: casent0915918; syntype of Gnamptogenys sulcata: casent0900550; syntype of Ponera tornata: casent0915919; type of Ponera tornata: focol0880, focol0881, focol0882
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