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Species: Formica lugubris   Zetterstedt, 1838 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Formica lugubris Zetterstedt, 1838: 449 (m.) NORWAY. Palearctic. Primary type information: Type-material: holotype male. Type-locality: Norway: Ofotfjord, 68.43°N, 17.03°E. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Status as species: Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 10; Betrem, 1960b: 77 (in key); Collingwood, 1962c PDF: 219; Samšiňák, 1964 PDF: 157; Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 91; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 318 (redescription); Kutter, 1968b PDF: 61; Kutter, 1968c: 206; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969 PDF: 94; Pisarski, 1969b: 313; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 218; Collingwood, 1971 PDF: 169; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 180 (redescription); Banert & Pisarski, 1972 PDF: 355; Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 7 (in key); Pisarski, 1975: 47; Collingwood, 1976a PDF: 304; Francoeur, 1977b PDF: 208; Kutter, 1977c: 271; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 554 (in key); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 93 (in key); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 148; Douwes, 1979 PDF: 187; Smith, 1979: 1459; Kupyanskaya, 1980 PDF: 104; Douwes, 1981b PDF: 217; Kupyanskaya, 1986b PDF: 98; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a PDF: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 286 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 85; Gösswald, 1989: 19; Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 198; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 274; Radchenko, 1994b: 114 (in key); Douwes, 1995: 97; Bolton, 1995b: 198; Poldi et al., 1995: 8; Espadaler, 1997g PDF: 28; Gallé et al., 1998: 218; Tinaut & Martínez-Ibañez, 1998d PDF: 37 (in key); Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 74; Radchenko, 2005b PDF: 163; Bračko, 2006 PDF: 147; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 113 (in key); Bračko, 2007 PDF: 19; Pfeiffer et al., 2007 PDF: 4; Seifert, 2007: 317; Werner & Wiezik, 2007 PDF: 144; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007 PDF: 233; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 482; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010 PDF: 50; Boer, 2010: 25; Legakis, 2011 PDF: 36; Borowiec & Salata, 2012 PDF: 495; Czechowski et al., 2012: 196; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 31; Kiran & Karaman, 2012 PDF: 11; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 76; Bračko et al., 2014 PDF: 19; Lebas et al., 2016: 172; Seifert, 2016a PDF: 14; Radchenko, 2016: 287; Steiner et al., 2017: 9; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c 10.5281/zenodo.2199191 PDF: 44; Seifert, 2018: 329; Werner et al., 2018 PDF: 6; Seifert, 2021 10.25849/myrmecol.news_031:133 PDF: 164, 165 (diagnosis).
Material of the unavailable name Formica rufa rufa tir referred here by Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5; Bolton, 1995b: 198.
Material of the unavailable name Formica rufa montana referred here by Seifert, 2021 10.25849/myrmecol.news_031:133 PDF: 176.
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Canada
    Asia: China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Turkey
    Europe: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Montenegro, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Palearctic

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174

61. Formica lugubris ZetterstedtHNS, 1840. Figs. 173,249-255.

Formica lugubris ZetterstedtHNS, 1840:449.

Worker. Bicoloured with distinct but not well demarcated dark patch on promesonotum. Frontal groove distinctly shining. Large punctures coarse and deep, widely dispersed among close set microscopic puncturation. Occiput with a thick fringe of hairs extending forward over area between ocelli and sides of head and laterally round to the eyes. Eye hairs erect and prominent. Body pilosity including gula, tibiae and femora more or less densely pilose. Some populations have scape hairs. Head width of largest workers 2.1 mm. Length: 4.5-9.0 mm.

Queen. Hairs and sculpture as in worker. Scale, basal face of gaster always with more or less numerous long hairs bent at the tip. Gaster, scutellum and frontal groove shining. Length: 9.5-10.5 mm.

Male. Black, legs and external genitalia yellowish to testaceous brovn. Hairs on eyes, genae below the eyes and dorsum of gaster prominent and clearly visible. Coarse punctures of head, alitrunk and gaster widely spaced among close set micropunctures. Gaster and scutellum always at least moderately shining. Length: 9.5-10.5 mm.

Figs. 249-254. Formica lugubris ZettHNS. - 249: worker in profile; 250: male in profile; 251: queen in profile; 252: head of queen in dorsal view; 253: head of male in dorsal view; 254: head of worker in dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm.

Distribution. Absent from Denmark and South Sweden; abundant throughout Norway and Finland and from Central Sweden northward. - Locally common in North Britain, local in South Ireland. - Range: northern Eurosiberia and European mountains from Pyrenees to Kamchatka and Japan, Italy to North Norway.

Biology. This is a robust active species. Colonies are often in groups with inter-connecting nests. It has similar habits to F. rufaHNS but is able to forage at much lower temperatures and replaces F. rufaHNS entirely from Central Fennoscandia to the far north. This species varies in the presence, abundance or absence of scape hairs in the female castes and some local populations in South Finland and in the Alps with such hairs have widely spaced micropunctures on the dorsum of the gaster as in F. rufaHNS. Because of great variability among local populations in these areas it has not been possible to demarcate the extreme forms as a separate species but samples mainly from coastal areas and offshore islands in Nylandia include some extremely hairy specimens with queens consistently having wide spaced micropunctures which are well outside the range of F. lugubrisHNS as described by Yarrow (1955) and Betrem (1960). Bondroit (1917) briefly described a form, F. rufa var. nylanderiHNS, as having long outstanding body and antennal hairs and F. nylanderiHNS could be a suitable name for this form, if distinguished as a species.

Fig. 255. Distribution of Formica lugubris ZettHNS., a northern boreal species.

Figs. 256-261. Formica pratensis RetziusHNS. - 256: worker in profile; 257: male in profile- 258: queen in profile; 259: head of queen in dorsal view; 260: head of male in dorsal view; 261: head of worker in dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm.

F. lugubrisHNS spreads by colony fission but also by the adoption of fertile queens by Formica lemaniHNS. Such mixed incipient nests often under stones have frequently been seen in Norway and North Sweden (Collingwood, 1959).

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 4 times found in alpine meadow, 1 times found in P.mugo, Abies, 2 times found in pine forest, 1 times found in Prado, 1 times found in S-slope, alpine meadow, 1 times found in sphagnum log, 1 times found in coniferous forest, 1 times found in subalpine meadow, 1 times found in montane coniferous forest, 1 times found in subalpine, forest edge, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 3 times nest mound, 3 times on the ground, 2 times ground foragers, 1 times nido broza, 1 times mound, forest edge, 1 times hiking trail, 1 times ground forager(s), 1 times foraging on the ground, 1 times foraging on path, 1 times small nest mound, 1 times Rotten log, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 16 times search, 3 times Hand, 2 times bait trap.

Elevations: collected from 250 - 2500 meters, 1569 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1959-12-03 00:00:00.0 and 2020-08-14 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: paratype of Formica rufa nylanderi: antweb1008416; syntype of Formica rufa alpina: casent0912249; type of Formica lugubris: casent0903279; type of Formica rufa alpina: antweb1008385; type of Formica congerens: casent0903278

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