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Species: Cyphomyrmex salvini   Forel, 1899 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Cyphomyrmex rimosus r. salvini Forel, 1899d PDF: 40, pl. 3, fig. 2 (q.) PANAMA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Primary type material: holotype queen. Primary type locality: Panama: Bugaba (Champion). Primary type depository: BMNH. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Wheeler, 1907d PDF: 724 (w.m.)
Subspecies of Cyphomyrmex rimosus: Wheeler, 1907d PDF: 724; Forel, 1908c PDF: 43; Emery, 1924f PDF: 342; Weber, 1940b PDF: 412 (in key).
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Guatemala south to Ecuador (type locality Panama). Costa Rica: widespread in wet to moist habitats, lowlands to cloud forest.


Natural History:

This species occurs in wet to moist forest habitats throughout the country, from lowlands to cloud forest. It is by far the most common Cyphomyrmex species in wet forest leaf litter. It does not usually occur in more open habitats, where it is replaced in abundance by C. rimosus. The nests are in between leaves in the leaf litter, in small pieces of rotten wood on the ground, and in rotten logs. Nests are also quite common in the subarboreal zone, in dead wood suspended in vegetation or under epiphytes, but usually within 2m of the ground. Nests may be partially or wholly constructed of accreted organic soil. Colonies are small, from tens to hundreds of workers. The few nests I have examined in their entirety have been monogynous; I have never seen a polygynous colony.

The center of the nest is the fungus garden, which usually contains two or three large caterpillar droppings and a few dozen fragments of dead insects. The dead insect parts are often brightly colored beetle elytra, and the workers appear to selectively harvest fragments that are very shiny or with metallic coloration (Figure 1). When exposed the nests look like small glittering piles of jewels, dotted with the green yeast-form fungus. Workers usually forage nocturnally and may be seen carrying over their head a caterpillar dropping or beetle elytron that is often several times their own size.

Figure 1. Partial contents of a Cyphomyrmex salvini nest, showing abundant dead insect fragments relative to workers (upper right). Click here for additional images of nest.

I observed a nest in Corcovado National Park that was a mass of accreted organic soil on the side of a tree about 1m high. The nest was 20x10cm, elliptical in outline, and 3-4cm thick, with numerous seedlings sprouting from the surface. The nest contained a single dealate queen. Inquilines and other nest occupants included one Rogeria tonduzi worker, isopods, millipedes, annelid worms, nematodes, unidentified insect larvae, mites, snails, and one each of 3 species of Staphylinidae. Another similar nest of accreted soil also contained a small nest of Pachycondyla unidentata.

Subarboreal nests of C. salvini can have spectacular panic evacuations in response to army ant raids. Individual workers, each carrying a larva, explode from the nest and may actually rain onto surrounding vegetation. The workers disperse and rest on leaf tips for a period of time before making their way back to the nest.

I have sometimes found larvae of C. salvini to be parasitized by Diapriidae. In Corcovado National Park I found a nest in flat chambers under the loose dorsal bark of a dead log. The area of the nest was roughly an ellipse 20x8cm. There were many alate queens, males, and over 100 workers. When I collected from the disturbed colony I noticed workers carrying large, blackened larvae. I later discovered that all these blackened larvae were larval skins covering developing diapriid parasitoids. All the healthy brood of the colony was white. I kept part of the colony alive and isolated some parasitized larvae. Seven to eight days later wasps emerged from both ant tended and isolated larvae. Each larva contained a single wasp. Wasps emerged by cutting a slit above the larval head capsule. I sent material to Lubomir Masner, who identified the wasps as genus Acanthopria.


Cyphomyrmex salvini is almost certainly a complex of sibling species, or at least shows some degree of morphological sorting by microhabitat. At various times I have tried to split Costa Rican salvini into as many as six or seven morphospecies. In a lowland rainforest site like La Selva Biological Station, a relatively small form with short scapes is collected abundantly in Winkler samples of sifted leaf litter from the forest floor, but is almost never collected by searching for nests (middle worker images above, specimen code INBIOCRI002278772). In contrast, a larger form with longer scapes is rarely collected in Winkler samples, but is commonly found when searching for nests (top worker images, specimen code INBIOCRI001254199). These nests are usually in dead wood lying on top of the litter or in the subarboreal zone. This size difference is also reflected in the queens. It appears that these two forms partition the forest floor, one occurring below the leaf litter, the other just above it.

Some collections have a relatively enlarged promesonotum compared to others, and this form seems more abundant in mid-elevation sites.

The Monteverde cloud forest contains one common species of Cyphomyrmex, and it is an almost black, somewhat more wrinkled version of lowland salvini (bottom worker images, specimen code INBIOCRI001281765). There seems to be a fairly abrupt transition from the dark cloud forest form to lighter-colored and somewhat smoother forms just downslope in either direction. The form of salvini in the southern Pacific lowlands (Corcovado National Park and vicinity) is a bit different from either of the La Selva forms, appearing intermediate.

In spite of this degree of spatial patterning, all of the characters show overlapping distributions and I have given up trying to separate them for now.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Cyphomyrmex salvini   Snelling, R. R. & Longino, J. T., 1992, Revisionary notes on the fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex, rimosus-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini)., Insects of Panama and Mesoamerica: selected studies., Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 479-494: 492, (download) 492 13137
Cyphomyrmex longiscapus   Kempf, W. W., 1966, A revision of the Neotropical fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex Mayr. Part II. Group of rimosus (Spinola) (Hym. Formicidae)., Studia Entomologica (N. S.) 8, pp. 161-200: 161-165, (download) 161-165 4580
Cyphomyrmex salvini   Kempf, W. W., 1966, A revision of the Neotropical fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex Mayr. Part II. Group of rimosus (Spinola) (Hym. Formicidae)., Studia Entomologica (N. S.) 8, pp. 161-200: 190-192, (download) 190-192 4580
Cyphomyrmex salvini   Kempf, W. W., 1968, A new species of Cyphomyrmex from Colombia, with further remarks on the genus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)., Revista Brasileira de Biologia 28, pp. 35-41: 39, (download) 39 4586

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 255 times found in montane wet forest, 258 times found in mature wet forest, 80 times found in wet forest, 92 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 78 times found in cloud forest, 55 times found in mature rainforest, edge of forest near pasture and agricultural land, steep rocky terrain, 55 times found in mesophyll forest, 31 times found in lowland rainforest, 28 times found in rainforest, 27 times found in montane rainforest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 721 times ex sifted leaf litter, 110 times Hojarasca, 86 times at bait, 34 times ex sifted litter from forest floor, 17 times ex sifted litter, 15 times sifted litter, 11 times pan trap, 3 times sifted leaf litter, 8 times ex sifted leaf litter on ground, 10 times beating veg., 1 times Hojarasca., ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 581 times MiniWinkler, 163 times Winkler, 125 times Mini Winkler, 60 times Search, 85 times Baiting, 68 times MaxiWinkler, 42 times Malaise, 37 times Berlese, 20 times flight intercept trap, 13 times Pan Trap, 16 times Beating, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 2190 meters, 717 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1905-03-25 00:00:00.0 and 2022-01-17 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: Holotype of Cyphomyrmex rimosus salvini: casent0901669; paratype of Cyphomyrmex salvini: casent0909382; syntype of Cyphomyrmex championi: casent0901668

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