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Species: Crematogaster (Orthocrema) torosa   Mayr, 1870 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Crematogaster torosa Mayr, 1870a PDF: 404 (w.) COLOMBIA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated). Type-locality: Colombia (“New Granada”): Santa Fé de Bogotá (Lindig). Type-depository: NHMW. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Material of the unavailable name Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera scurra referred here by Longino, 2003a PDF: 121.
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Venezuela
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Neotropical

Distribution Notes:

USA at least to Colombia, southern limit of species range not defined.


Natural History:

Crematogaster torosa has a biology very similar to crinosa and rochai. It occurs primarily in open, seasonally dry areas, highly disturbed areas, and pasture edges, although it can also be found in the canopy of mature wet forest. In Costa Rica it is a common species in urban areas such as the various city parks in the capital, San JosŽ.

Nests are large, polydomous, distributed in a wide variety of plant cavities. Dead branches and knots in living trees are most often used. In Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica they often occupy ant acacias, and may invade acacias already occupied by Pseudomyrmex. They often construct small carton baffles that restrict nest entrances and small carton pavilions that shelter Homoptera on surrounding vegetation. In some instances they may inhabit cavities in live stems. I found a large nest in the live stems of a Protium branch (Burseraceae) in Corcovado National Park, and I have found nests in live stems of myrmecophytic Acacia and Triplaris. Nest chambers are sometimes filled with alate queens and males. Based on a sample size of two, colony founding is monogynous. In one case I dissected a small colony in south Texas and found a single physogastric queen in the center. In another case I found a lone foundress queen in a dead branch of a Triplaris tree in Costa Rica.

Foraging is primarily diurnal but occasional nocturnal foragers are seen. Workers are generalized scavengers and they frequently visit extrafloral nectaries. Often columns of workers move between nests.


Specimens of torosa from the northern end of the range, in southeast Texas and in Arizona, are somewhat smaller and less polymorphic than Costa Rican material, but this seems to gradually change as one moves northward in Mexico. Specimens from Baja California are bicolored, with reddish head and mesosoma, and black gaster. However, the abundant material from Arizona and Costa Rica shows continuous variation in the degree of infuscation of the head and mesosoma, and some material may be clearly bicolored like the Baja material. Specimens from Baja nearly always have a long, acute anteroventral petiolar tooth. Specimens from the state of Arizona in the USA and Sonora and Sinaloa states in Mexico (former arizonensis) usually have a short but sharply acute tooth as an average condition, but the tooth form varies from long and spine-like to short and right angled. Specimens from southeastern Texas and Costa Rica show a great deal of variability, but usually have a right-angle tooth and less often a short, sharply acute tooth. They never have a long spine-like tooth. For the time being I interpret all this material as torosa, differing from crinosa and rochai by the somewhat flatter promesonotum and the usually shorter petiolar tooth, and with a gastral setal pattern intermediate between crinosa, which has a uniform covering of flattened setae, and rochai, which has no erect setae.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Crematogaster torosa   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 32, (download) 32 21367
Crematogaster (Orthocrema) peristericus   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download) 130 20256
Crematogaster torosa   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 120-122, (download) 120-122 20256
Crematogaster goeldii REVISED STATUS  Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download) 130 20256
Crematogaster uruguayensis   Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download) 130 20256

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 11 times found in CCL 840M, 7 times found in CCL820M, 8 times found in CCL 400, 25 times found in Roadside vegetation, 9 times found in CCL 700m., 11 times found in rainforest, 11 times found in montane wet forest, 9 times found in tropical dry forest, 3 times found in desert wash, 2 times found in lowland rainforest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 5 times on low vegetation, 7 times at bait, 6 times strays, 1 times Nest in 10mm dia dead branch of roadside legume tree, 2 times in fresh treefall, nesting in cavities inside live branch, 1 times unshaded tree, 3 times in treefall, 3 times nest in dead branch, 1 times under bark of live Populus, 3 times Malaise trap, 1 times 43, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 46 times Fogging, 22 times search, 15 times Malaise, 4 times hand collecting, 4 times direct collection, 4 times bait, 4 times Baiting, 3 times Beating, 1 times canopy fogging, 2 times Foggin, 1 times tuna bait, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1615 meters, 273 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1911-11-24 00:00:00.0 and 2020-01-20 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: syntype of Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera: casent0902169, casent0908405; syntype of Crematogaster torosa: casent0902161, casent0919709; syntype torosa: jtl056082; syntypes scurra: jtl056067; syntypes tumulifera: jtl056093, jtl056094; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera convicta: casent0908406; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera fautrix: casent0908407; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera scurra: casent0908408; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera tumulicula: casent0908409

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