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Species: Cephalotes umbraculatus   (Fabricius, 1804) 

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Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Cryptocerus umbraculatus Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 420 (w.) GUYANA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Primary type material: holotype worker. Primary type locality: “America meridionali”: (no further data) (Dom. Smidt. Mus. Dom. Lund). Primary type depository: ZMUC. Type notes: De Andrade & Baroni Urbani, 1999 PDF: 368, add that the holotype is labelled: “Essequibo Smidt Mus. J. Lund”; type-locality is therefore Guyana: Essequibo. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Klug, 1824 PDF: 211 (q.); Emery, 1890c PDF: 72 (s.); Forel, 1899d PDF: 51 (m.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1954b PDF: 157 (l.)
Combination in Zacryptocerus: Hespenheide, 1986: 395.
Status as species: Klug, 1824 PDF: 210; Guérin-Méneville, 1844a PDF: 426; Smith, 1853 PDF: 219; Smith, 1858a PDF: 192; Smith, 1862d PDF: 411; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 406; Roger, 1863b PDF: 38; Emery, 1890c PDF: 72; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 144; Emery, 1894l PDF: 61; Forel, 1895b PDF: 135; Forel, 1899b PDF: 51; Forel, 1912f PDF: 199; Mann, 1916 PDF: 449; Wheeler, 1922e PDF: 11; Wheeler, 1923a PDF: 4; Emery, 1924f PDF: 309; Borgmeier, 1927c PDF: 119; Borgmeier, 1937b PDF: 244; Smith, 1949c PDF: 20; Kempf, 1958a: 142 (redescription); Kempf, 1959a PDF: 98; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 181; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 388; Bolton, 1995b: 427; De Andrade & Baroni Urbani, 1999 PDF: 368 (redescription); Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF: 257; Bezděčková et al., 2015 PDF: 116; Sandoval-Gómez & Sánchez-Restrepo, 2019 PDF: 914; Oliveira et al., 2021 10.1590/1806-9665-RBENT-2021-0028 PDF: 45 (in list).
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia. Costa Rica: common in Pacific lowlands, from the Osa Peninsula to Guanacaste Province; rare in the Atlantic lowlands.


Natural History:

This species prefers open, sunny habitats, including the high canopy of rainforest, secondgrowth vegetation, and isolated trees in pastures and around dwellings. It is a relatively common species, and conspicuous due to its color pattern. I most often encounter it on treetrunks and in treefalls. In spite of its commonness, I have only seen nests once. I was collecting in a canopy Ficus, and I found many nests in live branches. The nests were in the very tips of the branches, with inside diameters 5-8mm, outside diameters 15-20mm. The nest chambers were irregular, as though excavated by the ants and not preformed by the plant. Workers were very abundant in the crown of the tree, suggesting a large, polydomous colony with nests in many branches.


Andrade, M. L. de, and C. Baroni Urbani. 1999. Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Palaontologie) 271:1-889.

Fabricius, J. C. 1804. Systema Piezatorum secundum ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Brunswick: C. Reichard, xiv + 15-439 + 30 pp.

Kempf, W. W. 1958. New studies of the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hym. Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. (n.s.)1:1-168.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 1 times found in wet forest, 3 times found in lowland rainforest, 3 times found in roadside vegetation, 2 times found in Rainforest, 1 times found in roadside edge, 1 times found in beach margin, 1 times found in La Selva, 1 times found in lowland primary rainforest, 1 times found in moist forest, 1 times found in premontane rainforest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times ex live stems Ficus, 3 times strays, 1 times on tree trunk, 2 times beating vegetation, 1 times On Lophopterys floribunda, 1 times Malaise trap, 1 times in fresh treefall, 1 times general collecting, 1 times fresh treefall, 1 times forest Hisbiscus flowers, 1 times foraging on tree fall, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 11 times search, 4 times direct collection, 2 times Beating, 1 times observation, 1 times Malaise, 1 times Manual sampling.

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1760 meters, 237 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1924-06-20 00:00:00.0 and 2017-10-27 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: Holotype of Cryptocerus elegans: casent0900238; Holotype of Cryptocerus flavomaculatus: casent0919605

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