Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)
Distribution: Geographic regions
(According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists): Asia: India Biogeographic regions
(According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists): Indomalaya
Description of gyne : Head much longer
than broad, little broader posteriorly than anteriorly, occipital margin straight, sides convex. Mandibles with seven
teeth (apical tooth largest, preapical larger than 3
remaining teeth small), mandibles finely longitudinally
rugulose and with punctures. Surface of head densely and
quite coarsely rugoso-reticulate, with very fine sculpture diverging from frontal triangle, and at level of anterior margin of eyes rupturing into reticulations with shallow punctures between them, reticulations becoming wider, irregular on rest of head. Clypeus convex, shiny, longitudinally
rugulose, rugulae absent on posterior region, spaces between them minutely punctured but shiny, median portion
of clypeus raised; anterior clypeal margin slightly prominent medially, without notch. Frontal triangle deep, smooth
and shiny; longitudinal groove from tip of triangle to anterior ocellus with deep pit at midlength; frontal carinae
short, curving outwards, merging with rugae that surround
antennal sockets. Antennae 12-segmented, densely punctated except for scape and first funicular segment, which is
minutely punctated; scape slender, narrow, weakly curved
at base without any trace of angle or carina, widening towards apex, just extending beyond posterior margin of
head, antennae with oblique short hairs and with pubescence
on apical five segments. Eyes large, situated almost at midlength of head. Dorsal surface of head covered by long,
barbulate hairs, interspersed with short subdecumbent hairs,
similar pattern observed on ventral surface of head; thick
and long setae present on anterior clypeal margin; both
outer and inner surfaces of mandibles with dense pilosity,
some of the hairs are also barbulate.
Alitrunk, petiole and post-petiole: pronotum transversally rugulose, its sides densely longitudinally rugulose, with
a few faint cross-meshes. Scutum anteriorly convex, posteriorly depressed, finely longitudinally striate including
V- shaped patch. Scutellum dorsally irregularly rugulose,
posteriorly transversally rugulose. Propodeal dorsum with
divergent rugosity, declivity smooth and highly polished;
propodeal spines thick, elongate-triangular, not pointed,
narrowly rounded at tip, diverging outward when seen from
above. Sides of alitrunk coarsely rugose including anepisternum; metapleural glands moderately large, with conspicuous orifice dorsally on bulla. Tibiae of hind and middle leg with well-developed pectinate spur. Petiole and postpetiole much wider than long, transversally striate dorsally,
petiole very shallowly concave dorsally, post-petiole short,
evenly convex dorsally, in profile petiole high and narrow, with short anterior peduncle and large keel-like subpetiolar process, anterior face of petiole smooth, opaque,
and that of post-petiole opaque and shagreenate. Alitrunk,
petiole and post-petiole furnished with numerous short and
long suberect to subdecumbent hairs directed posteriorly,
thick tuft of such hairs on post-petiole, few of the hairs barbulate apically.
Gaster smooth, highly polished and shiny. Tergites and
sternites with short, suberect pubescence between longer
suberect hairs, few barbulate hairs on last tergite of gaster
like those on head and alitrunk, petiole and post-petiole.
Colour: Head, alitrunk, petiole and post-petiole dark
brown; scape, mandibles (except black masticatory margin)
and legs reddish yellow.
Right and left forewing venation: Cells
(1+2r)+rm and m-cu closed; free floating proximal abscissa of Rs showing upward tilt in right wing.
Description of worker: Head much longer than broad, sides not strongly, but distinctly convex;
occipital margin straight. Mandibles with six teeth (apical
and preapical ones largest, basal tooth broader than 3
tooth); mandibles finely longitudinally rugulose
and with punctures. Clypeus convex, longitudinally rugulose, anterior clypeal margin prominent and rounded medially, sculpture absent on its posterior region, space between
rugae minutely punctated and shiny. Frontal triangle somewhat deep, weakly shagreenate but shiny; frontal carinae,
short almost straight, curving outwards to merge with rugae
that surround antennal sockets. Antennae 12-segmented, all
segments densely punctated except for scape and first funicular segment, which are minutely punctate; scape slender,
narrow, weakly curved at base, without any trace of angle
or carina, widening towards apex, just extending beyond the
upper margin of head; antennae with oblique short hairs
and with pubescence on apical five segments. Eyes large,
placed almost at midlength of head. Head sculpture finer,
more reticulate than in gynes; anterior clypeal margin fringed
with setae. Head with abundant long suberect hairs, few of
long and short hairs minutely barbulate apically.
Alitrunk, petiole and post-petiole: Alitrunk dorsum feebly convex, promesonotal suture shallow but distinct, metanotal groove broad, deep. Pronotum with transverse rugosity and reticulation, rounded anteriorly. Mesonotum irregularly rugulose, slightly depressed medially. Propodeal
dorsum rectangular, with reduced transverse sculpture; declivity smooth and highly polished; propodeal lobes rounded
apically. Sides of alitrunk longitudinally rugose, with sides
of pronotum rugulose. Propodeal spines rather short, sharp,
projected upward and divergent. Tibiae of hind and middle leg with well-developed pectinate spur. Shape of petiole
and post-petiole like in gynes; petiole high and narrow,
with short anterior peduncle, broader than long, transverse
dorsally, post-petiole short, evenly convex, both with transverse rugosity dorsally, anterior face of petiole smooth
and of post-petiole shagreenate and shiny, ventral processes of petiole and post-petiole shiny. Whole body very
hairy, with long standing hairs, few of them minutely barbulate apically, petiole with long subdecumbent hairs directed backwardly, but posterior face of post-petiole without such hairs.
Gaster and colour like in gynes.
Description of male: Head suboval,
slightly longer than broad, little broader posteriorly, with
convex sides. Mandibles with apical and preapical teeth
only, punctated and very weakly striated. Clypeus finely
irregularly rugulose. Frontal triangle deep, shagreenate but
shiny; broad longitudinal groove from tip of triangle to anterior ocellus; frontal lobes reduced and condylar bulb completely visible. Antennae 12-segmented, densely punctated
like in gynes and worker; scape long and slender, almost
equal to seven following funicular segments, extending
beyond upper margin of head, slightly curved from base to
three fourths of length, widening towards apex, with moderately defined four-segmented antennal club, antennae with
oblique short hairs and with pubescence only on apical four
segments. Eyes large, placed somewhat anterior of midlength of head. Head sculpture fine, hair pattern similar to
that of gynes but hairs not barbulate and subdecumbent.
Alitrunk: Pronotum like in gynes but with weak sculpture. Scutum convex, punctated, not longitudinally rugose,somewhat smooth, shiny, but V-shaped patch longitudinally
striated. Scutellum weakly irregularly striate, punctated and
transversally striate posteriorly. Propodeum dorsum divergently rugulose, with its middle portion smooth and shiny,
declivity smooth, highly polished; propodeum with blunt
tubercles. Metapleural lobes rounded. Tibiae of hind and
middle leg with well-developed pectinate spur. Sculpture
of sides of alitrunk less dense than in gynes. Petiole and
post-petiole much broader than long, petiole dorsally convex, post-petiole evenly rounded (unlike gynes where petiole is very shallowly concave dorsally and post-petiole only
convex dorsally); petiole finely transversally striate, punctated, while post-petiole smooth and shiny. Hair pattern
similar to gynes except for absence of subdecumbent and
Gaster smooth, highly polished, hair pattern similar to
gynes except for absence of subdecumbent and barbulate
Fore wing venation: Free floating proximal abscissa of Rs present; veins Rs+m and m reduced.
Thus cells (1+2r)+rm and m-cu open, vein m-cu complete.
Specimen Habitat Summary
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times nest.
Elevations: collected at 2469 m
Collect Date Range: collected on 2010-06-20
Type specimens: Holotype of Myrmica nefaria: antweb1008041; paratype of Myrmica nefaria: antweb1008042, antweb1008043
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