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Species: Tapinoma litorale   Wheeler, 1905 

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See Also:

Tapinoma litorale cubaense

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Extant: 1 valid subspecies

Tapinoma litorale Wheeler, 1905c PDF: 109 (w.q.m.) BAHAMAS. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Bahamas, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, United States
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Neotropical

Distribution Notes:

Bahamas, USA (Florida), Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia. Costa Rica: lowland wet forests throughout the country.


Natural History:

This species occurs in lowland rainforest. It is arboreal, nesting in thin dead sticks or other small plant cavities in highly insolated microhabitats, such as forest edges or high in the canopy. For example, I observed one nest in the core of a thin, soft rotten stick. There was a small tubular chamber in the center, about 5cm long, that housed a total of 20 adult workers and one dealate queen. Most colonies I have seen have been polygynous, with multiple dealate queens in nests.


I take a broad view of litorale, to include panamense Wheeler 1934 (and its synonym canalis Wheeler 1942). There is considerable variation and there could well be multiple cryptic species.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 27 times found in tropical moist forest, 9 times found in lowland tropical rain forest, 11 times found in montane wet forest, 2 times found in 2nd growth rainforest, 7 times found in lowland wet forest, 6 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 2 times found in rainforest, 3 times found in Wet forest on karst, 2 times found in montane wet forest, road edge, 4 times found in 2º wet forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 28 times beating vegetation, 22 times ex sifted leaf litter, 13 times nest in twig above ground, 6 times foragers at cookie bait, 3 times nest in dead stem, 6 times at bait, 1 times in dead stems Cordia alliodora, 5 times litter, 1 times in dead node Cordia alliodora, 1 times in dead stick in subcanopy of Pentaclethra, 3 times hollow twig, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 28 times Beating, 17 times hand collecting, 10 times search, 20 times MiniWinkler, 9 times Fogging, 10 times Malaise, 6 times Baiting, 7 times Winkler, 4 times Berlese, 1 times beating vegetation (3 hours), 1 times Foggin, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 1450 meters, 347 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1935-11-14 and 2017-06-03

Type specimens:

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