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Species: Octostruma gymnogon   Longino, 2013 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)

Octostruma gymnogon Longino, 2013b PDF: 33, figs. 1E, 3D, 5D, 24, 42 (w.q.) COSTA RICA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Primary type material: holotype worker. Primary type locality: Costa Rica: Alajuela, Casa Eladio, Rio Peñas Blancas, 10.31667, -84.71667, ±2km., 800 m., 26.iv.1987, #1579-s, primary wet forest, sifted leaf litter (J. Longino). Primary type depository: INBC. Primary type specimen: CASENT0627379. Secondary type information: Secondary type material: 9 paratype workers, 1 paratype queen. Secondary type locality: paratype/s with same data as holotype, paratype/s with same data as holotype but #1578-s, paratype/s with same data as holotype but 27.iv.1988, #2015-s, paratype/s with same data as holotype but 10.v.1989, #2529-s, paratype/s with same data as holotype but 23.v.1990, #2701-s, paratype/s with same data as holotype but 2.iii.2004, #5278-s. Secondary type depositories: CASC, EAPZ, INBC, JTLC, MCZC, MZSP, UCDC, USNM, UVGC. AntCat AntWiki


A cryptic inhabitant of forest floor leaf litter and rotten wood; wet forest of Central America. // Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Guatemala to Panama.


Octostruma gymnogon is a montane species. It occurs mostly in mature cloud forest. On the Barva Transect in Costa Rica it shows a sharp elevationally parapatric distribution with O. amrishi and is restricted to elevations above 400 m. Almost all collections are from Berlese and Winkler samples of sifted litter and rotten wood from the forest floor. Dealate queens and intercaste workers occasionally occur together with workers in litter samples. See additional comments under O. balzani.


Mandible with 8 teeth, tooth 1 a broad blunt lamella, strongly differentiated from tooth 2, teeth 2–5 acute, similar in shape, with denticles between them; teeth 5–8 forming an apical fork, with 5 and 8 large, 6 and 7 small partially confluent denticles (O. balzani complex); face lacking erect setae on posterolateral margins of head (present in O. balzani, O. megabalzani, and O. trithrix) and on the posteromedian margin (present in O. amrishi); mesosomal dorsum lacking a pair of erect setae (present in O. balzani, O. megabalzani, and O. trithrix); metanotal groove not impressed in profile view (impressed in O. balzani and O. megabalzani).


The name refers to the lack of a spatulate seta on the posterolateral vertex margin.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 121 times found in montane wet forest, 25 times found in cloud forest, primary, near ridgetop, 15 times found in wet forest, 1 times found in wet mountain forest, 11 times found in mature wet forest, 7 times found in mesophyll forest, 5 times found in cloud forest, 1 times found in wet premontane forest, 3 times found in moist forest, 4 times found in cloud forest, primary, along steep ridge near peak, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 100 times hojarasca, 66 times ex sifted leaf litter, 2 times litter, 6 times suelo, 2 times ex sifted litter, 4 times at bait, 2 times sifted litter, 1 times sifted leaf litter, 1 times forest litter, 1 times ex sifted leaf litter on ground, 1 times A lo largo del sendero hacia abajo., ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 96 times Mini Winkler, 45 times MiniWinkler, 22 times Berlese, 26 times Winkler, 3 times MaxiWinkler, 4 times baiting, 1 times Davis sifter, 1 times flight intercept trap, 1 times search.

Elevations: collected from 500 - 1500 meters, 1037 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1985-08-22 and 2020-01-10

Type specimens: holotype Octostruma gymnogon Longino 2013: casent0627379; paratype Octostruma gymnogon Longino 2013: casent0627380, jtlc000005383, jtlc000005390, lacment143374, lacment143375, lacment143379, lacment143380, inbiocri001281404, inbiocri001281422, inbiocri001282517

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