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Species: Tetramorium bicarinatum   (Nylander, 1846) 

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Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Myrmica bicarinata Nylander, 1846b PDF: 1061 (in text) (w.q.) U.S.A. (California). Nearctic. Primary type information: Primary type material: syntype worker(s), syntype queen(s) (numbers not stated). Primary type locality: U.S.A.: California, 1840. Primary type depository: type-material apparently lost (not in MNHN, not in ZMHF). AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Forel, 1891c PDF: 151 (m., misidentified as Pheidole guineensis (Fabricius, 1793)); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1954d PDF: 449 (l., misidentified as Pheidole guineensis (Fabricius, 1793)); Wheeler, 1924d PDF: 136 (gynandromorph, misidentified as Pheidole guineensis (Fabricius, 1793)).
Combination in Tetramorium: Mayr, 1862 PDF: 740; Bolton, 1977 PDF: 94
Status as species: Smith, 1858a PDF: 130; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 260; Bolton, 1977 PDF: 70, 94 (redescription); Bolton, 1979 PDF: 164 (redescription); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 84; Bolton, 1980 PDF: 267 (redescription); Onoyama, 1980a PDF: 197; Taylor & Brown, 1985: 89; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 277 (in key); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 78; Wang et al., 1988: 267; Deyrup et al., 1989 PDF: 97; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 381; Ogata, 1991b PDF: 102; Morisita et al., 1992: 35; Perrault, 1993 PDF: 333; Bolton, 1995b: 405; Wu & Wang, 1995a: 83; Tang et al., 1995: 79; Dorow, 1996a PDF: 81; Collingwood et al., 1997 PDF: 508; Deyrup et al., 2000: 298; Mathew & Tiwari, 2000 PDF: 307; Zhou, 2001a PDF: 106; Wetterer, 2002 PDF: 129; Zhang & Zheng, 2002 PDF: 219; Deyrup, 2003 PDF: 47; Imai et al., 2003 PDF: 136; Lin & Wu, 2003: 66; Wetterer & Vargo, 2003 PDF: 417; Collingwood & van Harten, 2005 PDF: 76; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005 PDF: 43; MacGown & Forster, 2005 PDF: 70; Ward, 2005 PDF: 68; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 100 (in key); Zhou, 2006 PDF: 583; Don, 2007: 145; Clouse, 2007b PDF: 253; Wetterer et al., 2007 PDF: 27; Framenau & Thomas, 2008 PDF: 73; Heterick, 2009 PDF: 177; Terayama, 2009 PDF: 162; Vonshak & Ionescu-Hirsch, 2010 PDF: 45; Wetterer, 2009a PDF: 1; Boer, 2010: 66; Mohanraj et al., 2010 PDF: 7; Collingwood et al., 2011 PDF: 443; Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 57; Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2011 PDF: 18 (redescription); Karaman, 2011b PDF: 54; Pfeiffer et al., 2011 PDF: 54; Terayama et al., 2011 PDF: 77; Bharti & Kumar, 2012b 10.3897/zookeys.207.3040 PDF: 32 (in key); Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 56; Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 138; Sharaf et al., 2012 10.1371/journal.pone.0030811 PDF: 8 (in key); Sarnat et al., 2013 PDF: 72; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 195; Ramage, 2014 PDF: 166; Guénard & Economo, 2015 10.11646/zootaxa.4040.2.8: 228; Bharti et al., 2016 PDF: 45; Wetterer et al., 2016 PDF: 20; Agavekar et al., 2017 10.7717/peerj.3800 PDF: 9; Deyrup, 2017: 150; Steiner et al., 2017: 19; Wagner et al., 2018 10.1038/s41598-018-30890-z PDF: 4 (in list); Salata & Borowiec, 2018c 10.5281/zenodo.2199191 PDF: 50; Dekoninck et al., 2019 PDF: 1158; Fernández & Serna, 2019 PDF: 827; Lubertazzi, 2019 10.3099/MCZ-43.1 PDF: 190; Madl, 2019 PDF: 16; Salata et al., 2019 PDF: 18; Dias et al., 2020 10.3897/zookeys.967.54432 PDF: 93; Khachonpisitsak et al., 2020 10.3897/zookeys.998.54902 PDF: 130; Yamane et al., 2022 10.3897/zookeys.1084.69767 PDF: 48; Wang et al., 2022 10.20362/am.015006 PDF: 108.
Senior synonym of Tetramorium modesta (Smith, 1860): Bolton, 1977 PDF: 94; Bolton, 1995b: 405; Zhou, 2001a PDF: 106; Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2011 PDF: 18.
[Note: the names Tetramorium cariniceps, Tetramorium kollari and Tetramorium reticulata had previously been incorrectly synonymised with Pheidole guineensis (Fabricius, 1793) by Roger, 1862c PDF: 293, and Mayr, 1862 PDF: 717; Tetramorium modesta (Smith, 1860) was wrongly synonymised with Pheidole guineensis (Fabricius, 1793) by Donisthorpe, 1932c PDF: 463.]
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Comoros, Eritrea, Europa Island, Grande Glorieuse, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Nigeria, Reunion, Seychelles, South Africa
    Americas: Aruba, Barbados, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, United States
    Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Krakatau Islands, Malaysia, Nicobar Island, Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen
    Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Malta, Montenegro, Spain, Sweden
    Oceania: American Samoa, Australia, Fiji, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Lord Howe Island, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Vanuatu
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native to (according to species list records):
    Indomalaya bioregion

Distribution Notes:

One record from Wallonia, only indoors


urban areas


Introduced species, although California is the type locality (leg. R. F. Sahlberg, in 1840) (Nylander (1846:1061).


first record in NZ; 1959 (Taylor 1961)

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Tetramorium bicarinatum   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Tetramorium bicarinatum   Bolton, B., 1979, The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region and in the New World., Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 38, pp. 129-181: 164-165, (download) 164-165 6435

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 35 times found in forest edge, open area, 3 times found in foraging or in nest on palmetto, 24 times found in coastal scrub, 34 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 19 times found in rainforest, 29 times found in urban/garden, 20 times found in disturbed forest, 14 times found in roadside, 10 times found in urban garden, 5 times found in dry forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 72 times Malaise trap, 32 times ground forager(s), 43 times ex sifted leaf litter, 34 times on low vegetation, 23 times ex dead twig above ground, 10 times under stone, 14 times ex rotten log, 3 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 3 times foraging on ground, 3 times ex rotten branch on ground, 5 times under tree bark, live tree, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 91 times M, 47 times Malaise, 35 times miniWinkler, 11 times H, 18 times hand collected|aspirator>bait trap|peanut butter, 7 times beating low vegetation, 11 times Malaise trap, 8 times search, 7 times hand collected|aspirator, 10 times hand collected|aspirator>bait trap|peanut butter, maple syrup, 3 times hand collection, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 1582 meters, 287 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1917-04-25 00:00:00.0 and 2022-08-16 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: Not Provided: casent0171032, casent0171033, casent0182796, casent0182800, casent0182802, casent0182803, casent0182807, casent0182811, casent0182812, casent0182813, casent0182816, casent0182817, casent0182819, casent0182820, casent0182822, casent0182824, casent0182825, casent0182827, casent0182828, casent0182829, casent0182832, casent0182834, casent0182835, casent0182837, casent0182838, casent0182839, casent0182841, casent0182845, casent0182847, casent0182849, casent0182851, casent0182854, casent0182855, casent0182857, casent0182858, casent0182859, casent0182860, casent0182861, casent0182862, casent0182863, casent0182865, casent0182866, casent0182868, casent0182869, casent0182870, casent0182871, casent0182874, casent0182875, casent0182876, casent0182883, casent0182884, casent0182885, casent0182886, casent0182887, casent0182888, casent0182890, casent0182892, casent0182895, casent0182896, casent0182897, casent0182898, casent0182901, casent0182902, casent0182903, casent0182905, casent0182906, casent0182912, casent0182913, casent0182914, casent0182917, casent0182918, casent0182919, casent0182920, casent0182921, casent0182924, casent0182926, casent0182927, casent0182928, casent0182931, casent0182932, casent0182933, casent0182935, casent0182937, casent0182938, casent0182939, casent0182940, casent0182941, casent0182943, casent0182944, casent0182945, casent0182947, casent0182948, casent0182949, casent0182953, casent0182963, casent0182969, casent0182972, casent0182973, casent0182974, casent0182979, casent0182988, casent0182989, casent0182999, casent0186550, casent0186650, casent0194560, casent0194581, casent0233288, casent0233289, casent0233290, casent0233291, casent0233292, casent0233293, casent0233294, casent0233295, casent0233296, casent0233297, casent0233298, casent0233299, casent0233300, casent0233301, casent0233302, casent0233303, casent0233304, casent0233305, casent0233306, casent0233307, casent0233308, casent0233309, casent0233310, casent0233311, casent0233312, casent0233313, casent0248815, casent0248816, casent0248817, casent0248990, casent0248991, casent0248992, casent0716182, casent0716183, casent0716184, casent0716185, casent0735621, casent0735622, casent0735623, casent0735672, casent0735673, casent0735674, casent0742326, casent0742355; syntype of Myrmica kollari: casent0235199, casent0235200; syntype of Myrmica modesta: casent0901374; syntype of Myrmica reticulata: casent0901076; syntype of Tetramorium bicarinatum: casent0235201, casent0235209, casent0235210

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