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Genus: Tetramorium   Mayr, 1855 


Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Extant: 587 valid species, 9 valid subspecies

Fossil: 2 valid species

Tetramorium Mayr, 1855 PDF: 423. Type-species: Formica caespitum, by subsequent designation of Girard, 1879: 1016. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Tetramorium in Myrmicidae, Myrmicidae: Emery, 1877b PDF: 81.
Tetramorium in Myrmicinae: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 423 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 61 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 20 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 457 [Myrmicidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 130.
Genus Tetramorium references
Roger, 1863b PDF: 26, 27 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 456 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 20 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1870b PDF: 972 (all species key); André, 1883a: 285 (Europe & Algeria species key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 261 (U.S.A. catalogue); Emery, 1893g PDF: 214 (Triglyphothrix species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 130, 135 (Tetramorium, Triglyphothrix catalogues); Forel, 1903a PDF: 700, 703 (India & Sri Lanka Tetramorium, Triglyphothrix species keys); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 172, 175 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma Triglyphothrix, Tetramorium species keys); Ruzsky, 1905b: 517 (Russian Empire species key); Emery, 1909f PDF: 695 (Palaearctic species key); Emery, 1916a PDF: 195 (Italy species key); Arnold, 1917 PDF: 271, 275, 334, 345 (diagnosis, South Africa Tetramorium (Tetramorium), Tetramorium (Triglyphothrix), Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) species keys); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 106 (France & Belgium species key); Mann, 1919 PDF: 353 (Papuasia Triglyphothrix species key); Wheeler, 1922: 187, 190, 193, 196 (Macromischoides, Tetramorium, Xiphomyrmex, Triglyphothrix diagnoses); Wheeler, 1922: 886, 889, 893, 906, 909 (Afrotropical Atopula, Macromischoides, Tetramorium, Xiphomyrmex, Triglyphothrix catalogues); Wheeler, 1922: 1030, 1031, 1032 (Malagasy Tetramorium, Xiphomyrmex, Triglyphothrix catalogues); Emery, 1924f PDF: 242 (Atopula diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1924f PDF: 272 (Triglyphothrix diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1924f PDF: 275 (Tetramorium diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1924f PDF: 286 (Xiphomyrmex diagnosis, catalogue); Santschi, 1924b PDF: 210 (Macromischoides species key); Arnold, 1926 PDF: 241 (South Africa Tetramorium (Tetramorium) species key); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 74 (Israel species key); Finzi, 1936 PDF: 183 (Egypt species key); Smith, 1938a PDF: 127 (North America Xiphomyrmex species key); Kratochvíl, 1941b PDF: 84 (Central Europe species key); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 84 (Central Europe species key); Smith, 1943b PDF: 2 (North America species key); Kratochvíl et al., 1944 PDF: 76, 95 (Central Europe species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 290, 293 (North America Tetramorium, Xiphomyrmex species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 174, 178, 179 (Asia Tetramorium, Triglyphothrix, Xiphomyrmex checklists); Brown, 1958h PDF: 27 (New Zealand species); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 227 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 249, 255 (Neotropical Tetramorium, Triglyphothrix catalogues); Alayo, 1974 PDF: 18 (Cuba species key); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 105 (Kyrghyzstan species key); Bolton, 1976 PDF: 310, 314, 341 (Triglyphothrix diagnosis, Afrotropical, Oriental & Malesian species revisions, keys); Bolton, 1976 PDF: 359 (Tetramorium diagnosis, review of genus, synonymy); Bolton, 1977 PDF: 72, 133 (Oriental & Malesian, Australia species revisions, keys); Kutter, 1977c PDF: 150 (Switzerland species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 544 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 86 (Iberian Peninsula species key); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 82 (Fennoscandia & Denmark species key); Smith, 1979: 1399, 1400 (North America Triglyphothrix, Tetramorium catalogues); Bolton, 1979 PDF: 132, 159 (Malagasy, New World species revisions, keys); Bolton, 1980 PDF: 196, 205 (diagnosis, review of genus, Afrotropical species revision, key); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 262 (Saudi Arabia species key); Gösswald, 1985: 311 (Germany species key); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 88 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 78 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklist); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 277 (Balkans species key); Wang et al., 1988: 264 (China species key); Radchenko & Arakelian, 1990 PDF: 371 (Crimea & Caucasus Tetramorium ferox complex, key); Dlussky et al., 1990 PDF: 197 (Turkmenistan species key); Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 149 (Bulgaria species key); Radchenko, 1992a PDF: 44 (former U.S.S.R. species key); Morisita et al., 1992: 33 (Japan species key); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 60 (Armenia species key); Radchenko, 1994b: 109 (South Siberia species key); Bolton, 1994: 106 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1053 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 403 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 79 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 332 (Saudi Arabia species key); Seifert, 1996b: 158 (Central Europe species key); Cagniant, 1997: 89 (Morocco species key); Radchenko et al., 1998: 107 (Poland species key); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 17 (Portugal species key); Sanetra et al., 1999 PDF: 317 (Italy, species); Shattuck, 1999: 168 (Australia synopsis); Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000: 95 (allozyme clustering); Chang & He, 2001b PDF: 1 (northwest China species key); Zhou, 2001a PDF: 100 (China, Guangxi species key); Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 145 (Poland species key); Mackay & Mackay, 2002 PDF: 214 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key); Seifert, 2007: 145 (North and Central Europe species key); Csosz et al., 2007 PDF: 8 (Tetramorium chefketi complex key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 162 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 177 (south-western Australia species key); Csosz & Schulz, 2010 PDF: 12 (Tetramorium ferox complex key); Hita Garcia et al., 2010b PDF: 12 (Afrotropical Tetramorium weitzeckeri species group key); Vásquez-Bolaños et al., 2011 PDF: 454 (Neotropical Tetramorium tortuosum group key); Sharaf et al., 2012 10.1371/journal.pone.0030811 PDF: 7 (Arabia species key); Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2012a PDF: 10, 31, 57, 91, 113 (Malagasy Tetramorium bessonii, Tetramorium bonibony, Tetramorium dysalum, Tetramorium marginatum, Tetramorium tsingy group keys); Bharti & Kumar, 2012b 10.3897/zookeys.207.3040 PDF: 29 (India species key) ; Czechowski et al., 2012: 369 (Poland species key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 137 (Fiji species key); Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2012b PDF: 8, 14 (Malagasy Tetramorium kelleri, Tetramorium tortuosum species groups keys); Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2013 10.3897/zookeys.299.5063 PDF (Afrotropical Tetramorium tortuosum species group revision, species key); Sharaf et al., 2013 PDF: 577 (Sharaf et al., 2012 10.1371/journal.pone.0030811 PDF's Saudi Arabia species key update); Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2014a PDF: 71, 77 (synonymy, Afrotropical Tetramorium decem species group, revision and key); Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2014c PDF: 10, 31, 57, 156 (Malagasy Tetramorium naganum, Tetramorium plesiarum, Tetramorium schaufussii, Tetramorium severini species groups, revisions and keys); Radchenko & Dlussky, 2015 PDF (fossils); Radchenko & Scupola, 2015 PDF (striativentre species group revision); Salata & Borowiec, 2017 10.3161/00034541ANZ2017.67.2.008 PDF: 279 (Tetramorium semilaeve species groups, revisions and keys); Agavekar et al., 2017 10.7717/peerj.3800 PDF: 1 (India species list and tonganum and inglebyi species groups keys); Cantone, 2017 PDF: 243 (brief male diagnosis); Wagner et al., 2017 PDF: 121 (Tetramorium caespitum complex revision and key); Fernández & Serna, 2019 PDF: 827 (Colombia species key); Yamane et al., 2022 10.3897/zookeys.1084.69767 PDF: 45 (list of Japan species, queen diagnosis), 46 (queen-based Japanese species key); Salata et al., 2023 10.1080/24750263.2023.2198548 PDF: 336 (Tetramorium inquilinum species-group synopsis, key).

Taxon Page Images:

Neighboring nests of Tetramorium pavement ants often fight extended territorial battles as colonies expand in the spring. The unfortunate ant in the center has been outnumbered by ants from an opposing colony. (Tetramorium "species E") Nixon, Nevada, USA.
Tetramorium pulcherrimum is a small, furry, forest-dwelling ant found in the rainforests of central Africa. Here, a forager explores the mossy microscape on top of a rotting log. Kibale Forest, Uganda.
Image © Alex Wild. // Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Europa Island, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grande Glorieuse, Guinea, Ile du Lys, Ivory Coast, Juan de Nova Island, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macaronesia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tromelin Island, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, United States
    Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cyprus, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Krakatau Islands, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
    Europe: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jersey, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
    Oceania: American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Lord Howe Island, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native biogeographic regions (according to species list records):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Tetramorium   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 37, (download) 37 21008
Tetramorium   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 150, (download) 150 6734
Tetramorium   Forel, A., 1887, Fourmis récoltées à Madagascar, par le Dr. Conrad Keller., Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 7, pp. 381-389: 3 3 3924
Tetramorium   Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 155, (download) 155 21820
Wasmannia auropunctata   Longino, J. T. & Fernández, F., 2007, Taxonomic review of the genus Wasmannia., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions. (Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80), pp. 271-289: 276-278, (download) 276-278 21284
Tetramorium   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 150, (download) 150 6734
Tetramorium   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 190-191, (download) 190-191 20597
Tetramorium   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 82-84, (download) 82-84 6175
Tetramorium   Csösz S., Radchenko, A. & Schulz, A., 2007, Taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic Tetramorium chefketi species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1405, pp. 1-38: 2, (download) 2 21169
Tetramorium   Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 155, (download) 155 21820
Tetramorium   Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 155, (download) 155 21820
Tetramorium   Mohamed, S., Zalat, S. & Fadl, H., 2001, Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and Delta region, Egypt., Egyptian Journal of Natural History 3, pp. 40-61: 54-55, (download) 54-55 21622
Tetramorium   Eguchi, K., Viet, B. T. & Yamane, S., 2011, Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), Part I - Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmicinae., Zootaxa 2878, pp. 1-61: 30, (download) 30 23462
Tetramorium n. sp.  Forel, A., 1910, Note sur quelques fourmis d'Afrique., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 54, pp. 421-458: 426-427, (download) 426-427 4026

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