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Species: Strumigenys emmae   (Emery, 1890) 

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Current Valid Name:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Epitritus emmae Emery, 1890c PDF: 70, pl. 8, fig. 6 (w.) VIRGIN IS (St Thomas I.). Neotropic. Primary type information: Primary type material: holotype worker. Primary type locality: Virgin Is: St Thomas I. Primary type depository: MSNG. Primary type specimen: CASENT0102082. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Combination in Quadristruma: Brown, 1949b: 48.
Combination in Strumigenys: Bolton, 1999 PDF: 1674.
Status as species: Forel, 1893j PDF: 381; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 148; Forel, 1893j PDF: 381; Emery, 1897c PDF: 581; Wheeler, 1905c PDF: 129; Wheeler, 1908a PDF: 149; Wheeler, 1913b PDF: 497; Donisthorpe, 1916b PDF: 121; Mann, 1920b PDF: 431; Emery, 1924f PDF: 327; Menozzi, 1929b PDF: 3; Weber, 1934a PDF: 51; Smith, 1937 PDF: 858; Brown, 1948e PDF: 123; Brown, 1949c PDF: 49; Brown, 1949d: 21; Smith, 1951c PDF: 829; Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 104; Kempf, 1961b PDF: 516; Smith, 1967a PDF: 362; Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 42; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 226; Bolton, 1973a PDF: 344; Alayo, 1974 PDF: 40; Taylor, 1976a: 82; Smith, 1979: 1409; Onoyama, 1980a PDF: 198; Bolton, 1983 PDF: 400 (redescription); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 86; Taylor, 1987a PDF: 66; Terayama & Kubota, 1989 PDF: 791; Deyrup et al., 1989 PDF: 98; Ogata, 1991b PDF: 132; Morisita et al., 1992: 67; Dlussky, 1993b PDF: 62; Dlussky, 1994a: 54; Perrault, 1993 PDF: 333; Bolton, 1995b: 377; Dorow, 1996a PDF: 80; Deyrup, 1997 PDF: 4; Deyrup & Deyrup, 1999: 13; Bolton, 2000: 950 (redescription); Deyrup et al., 2000: 300; Lin & Wu, 2001 PDF: 166 (in key); Wetterer, 2002 PDF: 129; Blard et al., 2003 PDF: 132; Deyrup, 2003 PDF: 47; Imai et al., 2003 PDF: 85; Lin & Wu, 2003: 63; Wetterer & Vargo, 2003 PDF: 417; Collingwood & Van Harten, 2005 PDF: 76; Sosa-Calvo et al., 2006 PDF: 820; Clouse, 2007b PDF: 227; Wetterer et al., 2007 PDF: 31; Framenau & Thomas, 2008 PDF: 72; Terayama, 2009 PDF: 141; Pfeiffer et al., 2011 PDF: 52; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 53; Wetterer, 2012c PDF: 69; Bharti & Akbar, 2013b PDF: 391 (in key); Sarnat et al., 2013 PDF: 72; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 165; Ramage, 2014 PDF: 161; Bharti et al., 2016 PDF: 44; Wetterer et al., 2016 PDF: 18; Deyrup, 2017: 127; Guerrero et al., 2018 10.25100/socolen.v44i2.7115 PDF: 254; Booher et al., 2019 10.11646/zootaxa.4656.2.7 PDF: 355 (in key); Dekoninck et al., 2019 PDF: 1157; Lubertazzi, 2019 10.3099/MCZ-43.1 PDF: 176; Pérez-Pedraza & Fernández, 2019 PDF: 1084; Tang et al., 2019 10.3897/zookeys.831.31515 PDF: 8; Dias et al., 2020 10.3897/zookeys.967.54432 PDF: 91; Wang et al., 2022 10.20362/am.015006 PDF: 102.
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles, Tanzania
    Americas: Anguilla, Aruba, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Suriname, United States, United States Virgin Islands
    Asia: Borneo, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Yemen
    Oceania: Australia, Guam, Hawaii, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native to (according to species list records):
    Australasia bioregion

Distribution Notes:

Cabo Verde


Original Description:

Epitritus emmae Emery 1890:70. Holotype worker: Saint Thomas Island, West Indies [MCSN].

Later moved to Quadristruma, then Strumigenys. See Bolton (2000) for complete synonymy.

Natural History:

Members of the genus are all predaceous, with a kinetic mode of attack (Bolton 1999).

This species has a distribution and habitat preference typical of tropical tramp species (Brown 1954). It occurs widely in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including oceanic islands such as Hawaii, and it is found most often in highly disturbed habitats such as beach margins and agricultural areas. The geographic origin of emmae is apparently Australia, where several related species occur (Bolton 2000).


Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology Series 46:267-416.

Bolton, B. 1999. Ant genera of the tribe Dacetonini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 33:1639-1689.

Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini, with a revision of the Strumigenys species of the Malagasy Region by Brian L. Fisher, and a revision of the Austral epopostrumiform genera by Steven O. Shattuck. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 65:1-1028.

Brown, W. L., Jr. 1949. Revision of the ant tribe Dacetini: III. Epitritus Emery and Quadristruma new genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 75:43-51.

Brown, W. L., Jr. 1954. The ant genus Strumigenys Fred. Smith in the Ethiopian and Malagasy regions. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 112:3-34.

Emery, C. 1890. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. I-V. Bullettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 22:38-80.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 10 times found in Rainforest, 11 times found in forest, 3 times found in coastal scrub, 6 times found in mixed forest, 5 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 4 times found in palm forest, 3 times found in dry scrub, 4 times found in littoral forest, 4 times found in tropical dry forest, 4 times found in Sand Pine Scrub, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 24 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 12 times ex sifted leaf litter, 9 times under rootmat, litter on rock, 3 times under stone, 4 times leaf litter, 4 times litter, 4 times ex sifted litter, 4 times ex rotten log, 1 times collected sifted bark from 2 standing, rotten trees, plus other incidentals. saw 2 skinks under bark, but not the same one as before.; placed 5 rat baits around area, within 30-45min, all had some an, 2 times 1 square meter of sifted leaf litter, 3 times under root mat on stone, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 11 times 9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 2 times 2 Maxi Winks, 15 times Winkler, 5 times Davis sifting>hand collected|aspirator, 5 times maxiWinkler, 1 times 4 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 3 times hand collected, 3 times Berlese, 3 times berlese funnel, 1 times 3 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 3 times MW 50 sample transect, 5m, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 914 meters, 168 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1896-12-31 00:00:00.0 and 2021-12-23 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: Holotype of Epitritus wheeleri: casent0249106; Lectotype of Epitritus clypeatus: casent0916677; syntype of Epitritus clypeatus malesiana: casent0909342, casent0912831; syntype of Strumigenys emmae: casent0102082; type of Epitritus clypeatus malesiana: focol2177, focol2178

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