Current Valid Name:
Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2022)
Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF
: 59; Forel, 1895b PDF
: 123; Emery, 1921c PDF
: 34; Borgmeier, 1927c PDF
: 76; Kempf, 1972b PDF
: 223; Ward, 1985b PDF
: 228 (redescription); Ward, 1989a PDF
: 443; Deyrup et al., 1989 PDF
: 94; Brandão, 1991 PDF
: 375; Ward, 1992 PDF
: 75 (specimen in amber), 80 (in table); Bolton, 1995b
: 375; Deyrup, 2003 PDF
: 46; Wild, 2007b PDF
: 41; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF
: 264; Bezděčková et al., 2015 PDF
: 126; Deyrup, 2017
: 43; Lubertazzi, 2019 10.3099/MCZ-43.1 PDF
: 164; Ward, 2019 PDF
Distribution: Geographic regions
(According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists): Americas: Argentina
, Cayman Islands
, Costa Rica
, Dominican Republic
, El Salvador
, French Guiana
, Puerto Rico
, Saint Lucia
, Trinidad and Tobago
, United States
, Venezuela Biogeographic regions
(According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists): Nearctic
This common and widely distributed species ranges from Florida, the Caribbean and Mexico, south to Argentina.
shows a preference for nesting in dead twigs of woody shrubs or trees, rather than in dead stalks of herbaceous plants. In Florida, nests have been collected in dead twigs or stalks of Baccharis halimifolia
, Cladium jamaicense
, Laguncularia racemosa
, Metopium toxiferum
. and Nectandra coriacea
; there are also museum records from Carya floridana
and Swietenia mahagoni
. Ward (1985) recorded Costa Rican nests of P. simplex
in dead twigs of Anacardium
, Ardisia revoluta
, Avicennia germinans
, Conocarpus erectus
, Gliricidia sepium
, Hibiscus tiliaceus
, and Terminalia catappa
Most P. simplex
nests dissected by Ward (1985) were queenless (indicating a high level of polydomy),
some were monogynous, and one contained two functional (i.e. inseminated, with well-developed ovaries) dealate queens.
Alates have been collected in May, June, and September in Florida.
- standing pilosity sparse, absent from mesonotum and propodeum
- small size (HW 0.55-0.74)
- eyes relatively long (REL 0.52-0.61)
- abdominal tergite IV smooth and shining, lacking a dense mat of appressed pubescence
- vertex of head smooth and shining
- profemur broad (FI 0.45-0.52)
This species is the smallest one of a trio of orange Pseudomyrmex
, P. seminole
, P. simplex
) which have been confused repeatedly in the United States. P. simplex
workers are recognizable by their smooth, shiny, puncticulate head; broad forefemur (FI >0.44); and shining fourth abdominal tergite which is devoid of a dense mat of appressed pubescence. In addition the workers have long eyes, closely contiguous frontal carinae, a very shallow metanotal groove, and a short petiole and postpetiole. There is a fair range of variation in size and body proportions. P. simplex
tends to be lighter in color than related species, and the fuscous patches on abdominal tergite IV are usually conspicuous, at least in Florida populations (less so in Central and South America).
Ward, P. S. 1985. The Nearctic species of the genus Pseudomyrmex
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 21: 209-246.
Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)
Treatment Citation: Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55
simplexHNS (F. Smith 1877).
Canindeyú, Central, “ Paraná R.” (Dept. unknown) (ALWC, IFML, INBP, MCZC).
Specimen Habitat Summary
Found most commonly in these habitats: 22 times found in mangrove, 23 times found in rainforest, 16 times found in rainforest edge, 28 times found in montane wet forest, 9 times found in CCL 700m., 12 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 18 times found in red mangrove, 17 times found in tropical moist forest, 7 times found in pine forest, 10 times found in tropical rainforest, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 38 times beating vegetation, 27 times on low vegetation, 20 times Malaise trap, 11 times dead twig Laguncularia racemosa, 14 times ex sifted leaf litter, 10 times ex dead twig, 6 times beating veg., 4 times ex dead Cladium culm, 7 times ex dead twig of woody shrub, 4 times at light, 6 times ex Carya floridana twig, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 74 times Fogging, 48 times Malaise, 44 times beating, 31 times Search, 7 times direct collection, 7 times MiniWinkler, 5 times Baiting, 5 times MaxiWinkler, 2 times beating vegetation (3 hours), 4 times yellow bowl trap, 3 times beating vegetation (2 hours), ...
Elevations: collected from 1 - 1200 meters, 217 meters average
Collect Date Range: collected between 1944-04-01 and 2019-06-25
Type specimens: Holotype of Pseudomyrmex simplex: casent0902901; syntype of Pseudomyrma delicatula: casent0902902, casent0907489; syntype of Pseudomyrma delicatula capperi: casent0907490; syntype of Pseudomyrma delicatula panamensis: casent0907491; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Pseudomyrma acanthobia delicatula vittata: casent0907492
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