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Species: Pheidole rhinoceros   Forel, 1899 

Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Pheidole rhinoceros Forel, 1899e PDF: 73, pl. 3, fig. 23 (s.w.) PANAMA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

See also: Wilson, 2003a: 738
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Southern Mexico to Panama.


This species occurs in lowland wet forest habitats. Its upper elevational limit varies geographically: on the Barva Transect in Costa Rica it does not occur over 500m elevation. It occurs as high as 800m elevation in the Peñas Blancas Valley in the Cordillera de Tilarán, and it has been collected at 1100m on Volcan Cacao, an isolated peak in the Cordillera de Guanacaste. Nests are in dead wood on the forest floor, under loose bark, and occasionally in live stems (nests have been collected in live stems of Myriocarpa [Urticaceae] and the petiolar domatia of Piper cenocladum [Piperaceae]). Surprisingly, given the moderately common discovery of nests when general collecting, workers rarely recruit to baits and are rarely collected in Winkler or Berlese samples.


Two similar species were conflated under this name until Longino (2009) separated the montane form P. rhinomontana. Wilson (2003) examined the lectotype of P. rhinoceros but later used specimens of the similar P. rhinomontana for illustrations. DNA barcoding data support the separation of P. rhinoceros and P. rhinomontana.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Pheidole rhinoceros   Wilson, E. O., 2003, Pheidole in the New World. A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: 738, (download) 738 20017
Pheidole rhinoceros   Longino, J. T., 2009, Additions to the taxonomy of New World Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 2181, pp. 1-90: 70-71, (download) 70-71 22820

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 31 times found in tropical wet forest, 9 times found in mature wet forest, 6 times found in wet forest, 5 times found in cloud forest, 9 times found in montane wet forest, 2 times found in rainforest, 1 times found in cloud forest treefall, 1 times found in tall wet forest, 1 times found in wet forest stream edge, 3 times found in montane wet forest, near streams, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 24 times at bait, 30 times ex sifted leaf litter, 3 times nest in rotten wood, 3 times at bait nr stream edge, 2 times in rotten wood, 2 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 4 times beating veg., 1 times nest in rotten stump, 2 times nest in dead wood, 1 times at cookie bait, 1 times nest under loose bark in treefall, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 26 times Baiting, 16 times search, 19 times miniWinkler, 10 times maxiWinkler, 4 times bait, 3 times Winkler, 4 times beating, 1 times 6L sifted litter, extracted in Winkler sack over 36 hours, 1 times 6L sifted litter, extracted in Winkler sack over ~18 hours, 1 times hand collecting.

Elevations: collected from 300 - 1320 meters, 717 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1980-09-20 and 2020-02-12

Type specimens: Lectotype of Pheidole rhinoceros: casent0610061; Not Provided: casent0283263; paralectotype of Pheidole rhinoceros: casent0610062; syntype of Pheidole rhinoceros: casent0901606, casent0901607, casent0904383

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