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Costa Rica: Monteverde, Cordillera Volcanica Central.
The type series of P. carinata is from a Winkler sample from Monteverde cloud forest. The minor worker has face sculpture composed mostly of rugae, with weak to absent foveolation; the scapes are relatively long, extending beyond vertex margin; the dorsal pilosity is relatively long; and the color is relatively dark. The major has abundant erect setae projecting from the sides of the head, and relatively developed rugosities on the anterior face.
Morphospecies JTL140 is from a nest series, collected under a stone on Volcan Cacao in Guanacaste. The minor worker of this form has face sculpture of both rugae and foveolation; the scapes are shorter, not quite or just reaching vertex margin; the dorsal pilosity is relatively shorter; and the color is lighter red. The major has a woolly look, with long appressed pilosity on the sides of the head; and the face is smoother, with less-developed rugosities.
In Monteverde, minor workers of these two forms are moderately abundant in Winkler samples, but show almost continuous gradation from one form to the other. I have identified these minors as one form or the other, but the identifications are very tentative.
Morphospecies JTL139 are minor workers only, from the 2000m site on Volcan Barva. They have shorter propodeal spines than either of the above forms.
Morphospecies JTL227 are nest series with associated majors, collected by Mike Kaspari and co-workers at Wilson Botanical Gardens in the southern Costa Rican mountains. Minor workers are like JTL140 but much darker. Major workers have head with erect projecting setae, like carinata, but the face is almost completely smooth and shining and the head is shorter.
Diagnosis A large brown member of the flavensHNS group whose major is distinguished by its square head shape in frontal view, angulate profde of the mesonotal convexity, and rugoreticulate mesosomal dorsum. The minor is very distinctive in the completely rugoreticulate condition of the posterior half of the head, promesonotal dorsum, and mesopleuron.
Similar to quadricepsHNS of Colombia but differs in the major by its much shorter propodeal spine, less extensive sculpturing on the head, the rugoreticulum of the mesosoma, which is completely lacking in quadricepsHNS, and in color, and in the minor by the mesosomal rugoreticulation, which is absent in the quadricepsHNS minor, and also in color. See also the less similar kunaHNS, obtusopilosaHNS, rectisentisHNS, scabriventrisHNS, and termitobiaHNS.
measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 1.14, HL 1.14, SL 0.62, EL 0.14, PW 0.54. Paratype minor: HW 0.54, HL 0.66, SL 60, EL 0.06, PW 0.38.
Color Major: head bicolorous, with head anterior to eyes yellow and remainder of head light brown (the holotype may be a callow); body light brown; tarsi and funiculi yellow; rest of legs light brown.
Minor: body dark brown; tarsi and funiculi dark yellow; rest of appendages medium brown.
range Known only from the type locality.
biology Occurs in leaf litter of cloud forest (Longino 1997).
Figure Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor. COSTA RICA: Monteverde, Puntarenas, ltmN 84AÃ‚Â°48W, 1560 m (J. T. Longino). Scale bars = 1 mm.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 16 times found in cloud forest, 6 times found in cloud forest, old second growth forest, 7 times found in montane wet forest, 2 times found in cloud forest, probably old second growth, matrix of dense bamboo and more open forest, 1 times found in cloud forest edge, near dairy farm pasture, some big trees in rocky areas, probably disturbed primary or old second growth, on a steep slope, 1 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, oak trees, bamboo, open with lots of light, 1 times found in cloud forest, old second growth, matrix of forest and open bamboo areas, 1 times found in cloud forest, probably old second growth, matrix of dense bamboo and more open forest, treefall gap, 1 times found in mature moist forest, 1 times found in mature wet forest, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 15 times ex sifted leaf litter, 10 times at bait, 4 times Hojarasca, 3 times ex sifted leaf litter on ground, 1 times nest in duff, 5 times ex sifted litter from forest floor, 1 times wet for. leaf litter, 1 times ex sifted litter, 1 times bajo trampa M/11, 1 times bajo de M/08, 1 times at ground bait, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 14 times Winkler, 6 times baiting, 5 times miniWinkler, 4 times Mini Winkler, 2 times search, 5 times bait, 5 times maxiWinkler, 1 times flight intercep trap, 1 times flight intercept trap.
Elevations: collected from 1330 - 2270 meters, 1568 meters average
Type specimens: holotype major Pheidole carinata: inbiocri002279948; Paratype Pheidole carinata: casent0624245, casent0624246, inbiocri001281219, inbiocri001281382, inbiocri002279946, inbiocri002279947, inbiocri002279953