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Species: Paratrechina longicornis   (Latreille, 1802) 

Classification:
Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Formica longicornis Latreille, 1802a PDF: 113 (w.) SENEGAL. Afrotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

[Misspelled as longipes by Wheeler, 1927d PDF: 11.]
Jerdon, 1851 PDF: 124 (q.); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 50 (q.); André, 1881c PDF: 60 (m.); Hung et al., 1972 PDF: 1024 (k.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986d PDF: 336 (l.); Fox et al., 2007 PDF: 3 (l.).
Combination in Prenolepis: Roger, 1863b PDF: 10.
Combination in Nylanderia: Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 216.
Combination in Paratrechina: Wheeler, 1921e PDF: 112; Bolton, 1995b: 314.
Status as species: Smith, 1858a PDF: 31; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 417; Roger, 1863b PDF: 10, 46; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 50; Mayr, 1867a PDF: 72 (redescription); Mayr, 1867d PDF: 442; Mayr, 1870b PDF: 947 (in key); Dours, 1873 PDF: 165; Mayr, 1876 PDF: 77; Emery, 1878: 46; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 466; André, 1881c PDF: 60; Forel, 1881 PDF: 2; Emery, 1881b PDF: 527; André, 1882c PDF: 203 (in key); Mayr, 1884 PDF: 31; Forel, 1885b PDF: 176; Mayr, 1886d PDF: 431; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 257; Forel, 1891c PDF: 81 (redescription); Lameere, 1892: 65; Forel, 1893j PDF: 337; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 179; Emery, 1893e PDF: 85; Emery, 1893g PDF: 195; Emery, 1893h PDF: 250; Forel, 1894c PDF: 408; Forel, 1895a PDF: 49; Forel, 1895b PDF: 105; Emery, 1895d PDF: 334; Emery, 1895m: 476; Pergande, 1896 PDF: 859 (redescription); Saunders, 1896 PDF: 26; Mayr, 1897 PDF: 436; Forel, 1897b PDF: 298; Forel, 1899a PDF: 120; Forel, 1899b PDF: 125; Forel, 1899j: 274; Forel, 1901c: 25; Dahl, 1901 PDF: 14; Emery, 1901h PDF: 121; Rothney, 1903: 99; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 326; Forel, 1903f PDF: 408; Forel, 1904c PDF: 387; Forel, 1905d PDF: 355; Wheeler, 1905c PDF: 133; Wheeler, 1907b PDF: 276; Forel, 1907g: 92; Forel, 1908b PDF: 4; Forel, 1908c PDF: 64; Forel, 1908 PDF: 401; Forel, 1908a PDF: 62; Wheeler, 1908a PDF: 154; Wheeler, 1908c PDF: 167; Forel, 1909b PDF: 54; Forel, 1909i PDF: 229; Wheeler, 1909d PDF: 336; Forel, 1910c PDF: 266; Forel, 1910d PDF: 127; Emery, 1910a PDF: 129; Yano, 1910a PDF: 421; Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 569; Wheeler, 1911a PDF: 29; Wheeler, 1911b PDF: 170; Karavaiev, 1911b PDF: 9; Emery, 1911g: 249; Forel, 1912a PDF: 73; Forel, 1912e PDF: 110; Forel, 1912l PDF: 165; Wheeler, 1912a PDF: 46; Forel, 1913b PDF: 339; Forel, 1913g PDF: 197; Forel, 1913i PDF: 354; Forel, 1913l PDF: 104; Santschi, 1913h PDF: 42; Wheeler, 1913b PDF: 499; Wheeler, 1913d PDF: 116; Wheeler, 1913e PDF: 243; Santschi, 1914b PDF: 127; Santschi, 1914d PDF: 378; Forel, 1914d PDF: 249; Wheeler & Mann, 1914 PDF: 45; Emery, 1914f PDF: 421; Forel, 1915b PDF: 92; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 345; Crawley, 1916b PDF: 376; Mann, 1916 PDF: 474; Stitz, 1916: 395; Wheeler, 1916c PDF: 13; Wheeler, 1916f PDF: 330; Viehmeyer, 1916a PDF: 147; Stitz, 1917 PDF: 349; Wheeler, 1917g PDF: 462; Luederwaldt, 1918 PDF: 48; Donisthorpe, 1918c PDF: 167; Mann, 1919 PDF: 366; Wheeler, 1919d: 276; Wheeler, 1919f PDF: 103; Santschi, 1920h PDF: 173; Santschi, 1920i PDF: 3; Mann, 1921 PDF: 474; Arnold, 1922 PDF: 605; Wheeler, 1922: 217, 941, 1038; Wheeler, 1922e PDF: 15; Müller, 1923b PDF: 118 (in key); Viehmeyer, 1923 PDF: 92; Wheeler, 1924c PDF: 252; Santschi, 1924c PDF: 114; Emery, 1925d PDF: 217; Stitz, 1925c PDF: 123; Mukerjee & Ribeiro, 1925 PDF: 208; Stärcke, 1926a PDF: 120 (in key); Borgmeier, 1927c PDF: 163; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 399; Wheeler, 1927d PDF: 11; Wheeler, 1927g PDF: 118; Wheeler, 1927h PDF: 104; Santschi, 1928a PDF: 53; Santschi, 1928c PDF: 71; Santschi, 1928h PDF: 132; Cheesman & Crawley, 1928 PDF: 524; Wheeler, 1928c PDF: 37; Menozzi, 1929b PDF: 3; Santschi, 1929e PDF: 164; Wheeler, 1929h PDF: 63; Finzi, 1930c PDF: 24; Menozzi, 1930b PDF: 122; Menozzi, 1930h PDF: 328; Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 168; Mukerjee, 1930 PDF: 157; Smith, 1930a PDF: 5; Wheeler, 1930k PDF: 79; Stitz, 1932a: 369; Wheeler, 1932a PDF: 16; Wheeler, 1933a: 60; Stitz, 1932a: 369; Wheeler, 1932e PDF: 162; Wheeler, 1932g PDF: 18; Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 83; Wheeler, 1934a PDF: 181; Wheeler, 1934i: 17; Goetsch & Menozzi, 1935 PDF: 102; Donisthorpe, 1935 PDF: 635; Santschi, 1935b: 275; Wheeler, 1935g: 48; Santschi, 1936c PDF: 207; Finzi, 1936 PDF: 191; Wheeler, 1936c PDF: 210; Wheeler, 1936g PDF: 16; Smith, 1937 PDF: 869; Santschi, 1938a PDF: 43; Teranishi, 1940: 37, 59; Menozzi, 1942a PDF: 178; Wheeler, 1942 PDF: 253; Eidmann, 1944 PDF: 460; Donisthorpe, 1946i PDF: 34; Donisthorpe, 1948g PDF: 142; Weber, 1948b PDF: 86; Donisthorpe, 1949b PDF: 503; Creighton, 1950a PDF: 404; Smith, 1951c PDF: 848; Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 216, 218 (combinations in Nylanderia, Paratrechina, respectively); Smith, 1954c PDF: 13; Wellenius, 1955 PDF: 15; Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 32 (in key); Wilson, 1964b PDF: 10; Linsley & Usinger, 1966 PDF: 175; Baltazar, 1966 PDF: 267; Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 87; Taylor, 1967b PDF: 1094; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 348 (redescription); Hamann & Klemm, 1967 PDF: 418; Smith, 1967a PDF: 367; Yarrow, 1967 PDF: 29; Cagniant, 1970c PDF: 38; Kempf, 1970b PDF: 34; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 182; Alayo, 1974 PDF: 26 (in key); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (in key); Snelling & Hunt, 1975 PDF: 122; Taylor, 1976a: 88; Francoeur, 1977b PDF: 207; Báez & Ortega, 1978: 190; Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 110; Smith, 1979: 1442; Snelling & George, 1979: 198; Onoyama, 1980a PDF: 199; Barquín, 1981: 441; Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 438; Trager, 1984b PDF: 153 (redescription); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 299; Taylor, 1987a PDF: 52; DuBois & LaBerge, 1988: 150; Kugler, 1988: 259; Deyrup et al., 1989 PDF: 100; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 368; Morisita et al., 1991: 21; Wang, 1992: 680; Dlussky, 1994a: 55; Bolton, 1995b: 314; Douwes, 1995: 92; Schembri & Collingwood, 1995: 156; Tang et al., 1995: 99; Wu & Wang, 1995a: 150; Dorow, 1996a PDF: 88; Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 370; Collingwood et al., 1997 PDF: 510; Terayama, 1999c PDF: 50 (in key); Tiwari, 1999 PDF: 80; Deyrup et al., 2000: 302; Mathew & Tiwari, 2000 PDF: 349; Zhou, 2001a PDF: 177; Wetterer, 2002 PDF: 129; Zhang & Zheng, 2002 PDF: 219; Blard et al., 2003 PDF: 130; Deyrup, 2003 PDF: 46; Imai et al., 2003 PDF: 81; Lin & Wu, 2003: 62; Wetterer & Vargo, 2003 PDF: 417; Collingwood et al., 2004 PDF: 486; Wetterer & Wetterer, 2004 PDF: 215; Coovert, 2005 PDF: 116; Ghosh et al., 2005 PDF: 14; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005 PDF: 31; MacGown & Forster, 2005 PDF: 65; Ward, 2005 PDF: 30; Cagniant, 2006 PDF: 194; Gómez & Espadaler, 2006 PDF: 228; Wetterer, 2006 PDF: 415; Clouse, 2007b PDF: 220; Don, 2007: 200; Wetterer et al., 2007 PDF: 31; Wetterer et al., 2007 PDF: 18; Wild, 2007b PDF: 29; Framenau & Thomas, 2008 PDF: 64; Paknia et al., 2008 PDF: 155; Wetterer, 2008 PDF: 137; Heterick, 2009 PDF: 105; Terayama, 2009 PDF: 210 (in key); Vonshak & Ionescu-Hirsch, 2009 PDF: 40; Mohanraj et al., 2010 PDF: 7; Collingwood et al., 2011 PDF: 467; Pfeiffer et al., 2011 PDF: 40; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF: 256; Ellison et al., 2012: 213; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 35; Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 68; Hita Garcia et al., 2013 PDF: 207; LaPolla et al., 2013 10.3897/JHR.35.5628 PDF: 75 (redescription); Sarnat et al., 2013 PDF: 70; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 141; LaPolla & Fisher, 2014b PDF: 41 (in key); Ramage, 2014 PDF: 157; Tohmé & Tohmé, 2014 PDF: 138; Bezděčková et al., 2015 PDF: 114; Bharti et al., 2016 PDF: 29; Jaitrong et al., 2016 PDF: 30; Lebas et al., 2016: 230; Wetterer et al., 2016 PDF: 14; Sharaf et al., 2017 10.1080/00222933.2016.1271157 PDF: 14; Deyrup, 2017: 221; Sharaf et al., 2018 10.20362/am.010004 PDF: 12; Dekoninck et al., 2019 PDF: 1156; Lubertazzi, 2019 10.3099/MCZ-43.1 PDF: 141; Madl, 2019 PDF: 14.

Taxon Page Images:

// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Cameroon, Canary Islands, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Europa Island, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grande Glorieuse, Guinea, Ile du Lys, Ivory Coast, Juan de Nova Island, Kenya, Libya, Macaronesia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Reunion, Saint Helena, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Anguilla, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States, Venezuela
    Asia: Bahrain, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Japan, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen
    Europe: Balearic Islands, Belgium, Estonia, France, Malta, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom
    Oceania: Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native to (according to species list records):
    Afrotropical bioregion

Distribution Notes:

Reference for Kenya if not type: Arabuko Sukoke

Biology:

Natural History:

This species is a pantropical tramp that is easily dispersed by human activity. They are a common pest ant in houses and seem peculiarly adapted to the interior and immediate vicinity of human habitations (Fig. 1). In Costa Rica I have collected them in the town squares of Liberia and Sierpe, city parks in San JosŽ, around the buildings at Finca La Pacifica, beach margins of Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and in the dining hall of La Selva Biological Station. At La Selva, where intensive surveys of the ant fauna have been carried out, I have never collected P. longicornis beyond the confines of the dining hall.

The workers are very generalized scavengers, very quickly recruiting to food scraps in houses.

On two occasions, once at Discovery Bay Marine Lab in Jamaica and once on the steps of the La Selva dining hall, I have seen massive emergences of P. longicornis colonies (Fig. 2). I do not know what caused these evacuations, but the visual effect was stunning. In each case many square meters were covered with a coruscating layer of workers. The workers formed a closely spaced monolayer. Many of the workers were carrying brood, and many dealate queens were scattered amongst the workers. When undisturbed the ants were more or less stationary, but shining a light on them or blowing on them caused ripples and waves of movement.

There is a large literature on the biology of P. longicornis. A search for "Paratrechina longicornis" in the 2001 version of Formis, a database of ant literature, yielded 271 references.

Comments:

Introduced species

Notes:

(Dutch vernacular name: superlangsprietmier)

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Paratrechina longicornis   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 29, (download) 29 21367
Paratrechina longicornis   Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 155, (download) 155 21820
Paratrechina longicornis   Espadaler, X., 2007, The ants of El Hierro (Canary Islands)., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions., Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 80, pp. 113-127: 121, (download) 121 21278
Paratrechina longicornis   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 99 times found in urban/garden, 36 times found in coastal scrub, 38 times found in dry forest, 24 times found in urban garden, 25 times found in open secondary vegetation, 14 times found in degraded dry forest, 18 times found in rainforest, 17 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 15 times found in Degraded dry forest on tsingy, 11 times found in tropical dry forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 112 times on low vegetation, 86 times ground forager(s), 26 times under stone, 42 times ex soil, 21 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 27 times ground forager, 19 times ex rotten log, 18 times ex sifted leaf litter, 16 times at bait, 12 times ground nest, 1 times ex rot pokcet above ground, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 42 times Hand, 31 times search, 27 times hand collection, 15 times Beating, 16 times hand collecting, 24 times beatting, 20 times malaise, 5 times water traps, 13 times hand collected|aspirator>bait trap|peanut butter, 16 times Baiting, 13 times hand collected|aspirator>bait trap|peanut butter, maple syrup, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 1850 meters, 159 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1893-01-01 and 2019-11-13

Type specimens: Not Provided: casent0127494, casent0171035, casent0171073, casent0181355, casent0181371, casent0248853, casent0248854, casent0248855, casent0248873, casent0248883, casent0248949, casent0742439



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