Georegion: Asia - Southern Asia - Sri Lanka
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Species: Oecophylla smaragdina   (Fabricius, 1775) 

Classification:
Download Data

See Also:

Oecophylla smaragdina fuscoides, Oecophylla smaragdina gracilior, Oecophylla smaragdina gracillima, Oecophylla smaragdina selebensis, Oecophylla smaragdina subnitida

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Extant: 5 valid subspecies

Formica smaragdina Fabricius, 1775 PDF: 828 (q.) INDIA. Indomalaya. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Jerdon, 1851 PDF: 121 (w.m.); Forel, 1886h PDF: 199 (m.); Karavaiev, 1906 PDF: 373 (l.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1953e PDF: 176 (l.); Crozier, 1970a PDF: 115 (k.)
Combination in Oecophylla: Smith, 1860b PDF: 102
Status as species: Fabricius, 1782: 488; Fabricius, 1787 PDF: 307; Gmelin, 1790 PDF: 2797; Christ, 1791 PDF: 505; Olivier, 1792: 491; Fabricius, 1793 PDF: 350; Latreille, 1802a PDF: 176; Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 397; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 218; Le Guillou, 1842 PDF: 313; Jerdon, 1851 PDF: 121; Smith, 1857a PDF: 53; Smith, 1858a PDF: 17; Smith, 1860a PDF: 68; Smith, 1860b PDF: 102; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 695; Smith, 1863a PDF: 17; Roger, 1863b PDF: 10, 46; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 438; Motschoulsky, 1863: 11; Smith, 1865a PDF: 70; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 50; Mayr, 1867a PDF: 70 (redescription); Smith, 1871a PDF: 319; Mayr, 1872 PDF: 143; Smith, 1873: viii; Mayr, 1876 PDF: 76; Forel, 1879a PDF: 127; Forel, 1885b PDF: 176; Forel, 1886d PDF: 243; Forel, 1886h PDF: 199; Emery, 1887a PDF: 242; Emery, 1888: 530; Emery, 1889: 510; Rothney, 1889 PDF: 358; Mayr, 1893b PDF: 197; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 176; Emery, 1893g PDF: 194; Emery, 1893h PDF: 250; Emery, 1894j: 46; Forel, 1894c PDF: 400; Emery, 1895m: 476; Mayr, 1896 PDF: 249; Mayr, 1897 PDF: 432; Emery, 1900: 700; Emery, 1901h PDF: 121; Forel, 1901c: 24; Dahl, 1901 PDF: 12; Rothney, 1903: 99; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 311; Forel, 1903f PDF: 408; Forel, 1904c PDF: 387; Forel, 1905f PDF: 26; Karavaiev, 1906 PDF: 373; Mayr, 1907b PDF: 18; Forel, 1907h PDF: 18; Forel, 1907i PDF: 88; Forel, 1908b PDF: 5; Forel, 1909b PDF: 55; Forel, 1909i PDF: 229; Wheeler, 1909d PDF: 342; Emery, 1911f PDF: 532; Stitz, 1911a PDF: 370; Forel, 1911f PDF: 371; Forel, 1913b PDF: 339; Forel, 1913l PDF: 122; Wheeler, 1913f PDF: 237; Viehmeyer, 1914a PDF: 115; Forel, 1915a PDF: 37; Viehmeyer, 1916a PDF: 146; Santschi, 1919a PDF: 326; Wheeler, 1919f PDF: 105; Emery, 1921g: 101; Arnold, 1922 PDF: 609; Wheeler, 1922: 947; Wheeler, 1924c PDF: 253; Santschi, 1924c PDF: 117; Mukerjee & Ribeiro, 1925 PDF: 208; Emery, 1925d PDF: 52; Wheeler, 1927b PDF: 46; Wheeler, 1927h PDF: 101; Santschi, 1928h PDF: 132; Menozzi, 1930h PDF: 328; Mukerjee, 1930 PDF: 157; Wheeler, 1930k PDF: 75; Kutter, 1932 PDF: 209; Karavaiev, 1933a PDF: 315; Santschi, 1933e PDF: 2; Mukerjee, 1934 PDF: 9; Karavaiev, 1935a PDF: 112; Wheeler, 1935g: 38; Wheeler, 1937a PDF: 24; Donisthorpe, 1942d: 457; Donisthorpe, 1943e PDF: 457; Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 220; Collingwood, 1962c PDF: 229; Baltazar, 1966 PDF: 268; Collingwood, 1970b: 377; Taylor & Brown, 1985: 127; Taylor, 1987a PDF: 49; Bolton, 1995b: 298; Wu & Wang, 1995a: 159; Tang et al., 1995: 95; Tiwari, 1999 PDF: 66; Mathew & Tiwari, 2000 PDF: 344; Zhou, 2001a PDF: 189; Ghosh et al., 2005 PDF: 14; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005 PDF: 30; Mohanraj et al., 2010 PDF: 7; Pfeiffer et al., 2011 PDF: 40; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 35; Bharti et al., 2016 PDF: 29; Jaitrong et al., 2016 PDF: 30; Dias et al., 2020 10.3897/zookeys.967.54432 PDF: 46; Rahman et al., 2021 10.11648/j.ajbes.20210703.11 PDF: 57 (mitochondrial phylogeny, divergence dating).
Senior synonym of Oecophylla kolhapurensis: new synonym (unpublished).
// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Asia: Bangladesh, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
    Oceania: Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Australasia, Indomalaya

Distribution Notes:

India, Australia, China, Philippines, Indonesia

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Oecophylla smaragdina   Forel, A., 1894, Les formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part IV. Adjonction aux genres Camponotus, Mayr., et Polyrhachis, Shuck., Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 8, pp. 396-420: 400, (download) 400 3951
Oecophylla smaragdina   Forel, A., 1904, Note sur les fourmis du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences à St. Pétersbourg., Yezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk 8, pp. 368-388: 20, (download) 20 3994
Oecophylla smaragdina   Forel, A., 1886, Études myrmécologiques en 1886., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 30, pp. 131-215: 69-70, (download) 69-70 3923
Oecophylla smaragdina   Emery, C., 1893, Voyage de M. E. Simon à l'île de Ceylan (janvier - février 1892). 3 e Mémoire. Formicides., Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 62, pp. 239-258: 12, (download) 12 3767
Oecophylla smaragdina   Mayr, G., 1893, Formiciden von Herrn Dr. Fr. Stuhlmann in Ost-Afrika gesammelt., Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 10, pp. 193-201: 5, (download) 5 4386
Oecophylla smaragdina   Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 695, (download) 695 4445
Oecophylla smaragdina   Forel, A., 1907, Ameisen von Madagaskar, den Comoren und Ostafrika., Ameisen von Madagaskar, den Comoren und Ostafrika (Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903 - 1905 mitteln der Hermann und Elise geb. Heckmann Wentzel-Stiftung ausgeführt von Professor Dr. Alfred, pp. 75-92: 88, (download) 88 8171
Oecophylla smaragdina   Forel, A., 1909, Fourmis du Musée de Bruxelles. Fourmis de Benguela récoltées par M. Creighton Wellman, et fourmis du Congo récoltées par MM. Luja, Kohl et Laurent., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 53, pp. 51-73: 55, (download) 55 4018

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 56 times found in Rainforest, 13 times found in Eucalyptus woodland, 11 times found in Riparian woodland, 5 times found in dry sclerophyll, 5 times found in Rainforest edge, 3 times found in urban parkland, 3 times found in Coastal scrub forest, 2 times found in riparian closed-forest, 2 times found in Public town park, 2 times found in Beach front, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 35 times foraging on low vegetation, 21 times Malaise trap, 18 times flight intercept trap, 14 times foraging on tree, 8 times Sieved litter, 6 times silk nest in living leaves, 5 times Foraging column on tree, 1 times on Rhizophora apiculata, 2 times Litter, 3 times ground strays, 3 times on low vegetation, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 1 times wild caught, 13 times Berlesate, 12 times Flight intercept trap, 9 times direct collection, 6 times Pyrethrum knockdown, 5 times Sweeping, 4 times Hand collection, 3 times Baited Pitfall traps, 3 times Hand, 3 times Pitfall traps, 3 times by hand, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 1560 meters, 170 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1920-08-31 and 2018-02-11

Type specimens: Not Provided: casent0715559, casent0716495, casent0716496, casent0716497, casent0716498



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