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Species: Monomorium pharaonis   (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Download Data

See Also:

Monomorium pharaonis_cf1, Monomorium pharaonis_cf2, Monomorium pharaonis_nr

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2020)

Formica pharaonis Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 580 (w.) EGYPT. Palearctic. Primary type information: Egypt AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Mayr, 1865 PDF: 90 (m.); André, 1883a: 338 (q.); Forel, 1891c PDF: 164 (w.q.m.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1955c PDF: 121 (l.); Petralia & Vinson, 1980 PDF: 383 (l.); Imai, 1966b PDF: 119 (k.).
Combination in Monomorium: Mayr, 1862 PDF: 752.
Senior synonym of Monomorium antiguensis: Roger, 1862c PDF: 294.
Senior synonym of Monomorium domestica: Roger, 1862c PDF: 294.
Senior synonym of Monomorium fragilis: Mayr, 1886c PDF: 359.
Senior synonym of Monomorium contigua: Mayr, 1886c PDF: 359.
Senior synonym of Monomorium minuta: Emery, 1892c PDF: 165; Bolton, 1987 PDF: 288.
Senior synonym of Monomorium vastator: Donisthorpe, 1932c PDF: 449.
// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, United States
    Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Oman, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
    Europe: Belgium, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom
    Oceania: Australia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Hawaii, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native to (according to species list records):
    Afrotropical bioregion

Distribution Notes:

Throughout SLO


Introduced, in heated premises, temporary outside


Introduced species


Caste of types: (w)


Williams, D. F., (ed.). 1994. Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1893, Formiciden von Herrn Dr. Fr. Stuhlmann in Ost-Afrika gesammelt., Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 10, pp. 193-201: 9, (download) 9 4386
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1895, Afrikanische Formiciden., Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 10, pp. 124-154: 133, (download) 133 4387
Monomorium pharaonis   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 33, (download) 33 21367
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 163-164, (download) 163-164 6734
Monomorium pharaonis   Emery, C., 1877, Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte prima. Formiche provenienti dall Viaggio dei signori Antinori, Beccari e Issel nel Mar Rosso e nel paese de, Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) 9, pp. 363-381: -1, (download) -1 3735
Monomorium pharaonis   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Monomorium pharaonis   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 162, (download) 162 20597
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1908, Fourmis de Costa-Rica, récoltées par M. Paul Biolley., Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44, pp. 35-72: 45, (download) 45 4014
Monomorium pharaonis   Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 155, (download) 155 21820
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 752-753, (download) 752-753 4445
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1907, The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. No. VI. - Fourmis des Seychelles, Amirantes, Farquhar et Chagos., Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12, pp. 91-94: -1, (download) -1 4010
Monomorium pharaonis   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 62-64, (download) 62-64 6175
Monomorium pharaonis   Heterick, B. E., 2006, A revision of the Malagasy ants belonging to genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 57, pp. 69-202: 100-102, (download) 100-102 21061
Monomorium pharaonis   Fernández, F., 2007, Two new South American species of Monomorium Mayr with taxonomic notes on the genus., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions. (Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80), pp. 128-145: 137, (download) 137 21280

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 14 times found in Unknown, 9 times found in urban/garden, 1 times found in Botanical garden rubber plantation, 8 times found in Anthropogenic, 3 times found in palm forest, 2 times found in forest, 7 times found in rainforest, 2 times found in wet forest, 7 times found in 2º wet forest, 1 times found in mixed forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 7 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 11 times ex sifted leaf litter, 9 times ground forager(s), 4 times on low vegetation, 1 times in houses, 6 times litter, 1 times from inside empty cup o noodles right outside of Delkuu house, 2 times house pest, 3 times on granite, 0 times Pasture, 1 times near dock, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 4 times Random coll. Winkler sifting, 2 times 9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 6 times Winkler, 10 times Manual catch, 5 times hand collected|aspirator, 5 times direct collection, 6 times MiniWinkler, 1 times 6 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 3 times search, 3 times hand collected|aspirator>bait trap|peanut butter, maple syrup, 3 times Hand collection, ...

Elevations: collected from 2 - 2183 meters, 416 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1869-07-15 and 2018-11-27

Type specimens: Holotype of Myrmica contigua: casent0102682; Lectotype of Monomorium vastator: casent0008625; Lectotype of Myrmica fragilis: casent0102330; unpublished name: Monomorium pharaonis atrigaster: rmcaent000017769

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