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Species: Formica rufa   Linnaeus, 1761 

Classification:
Download Data

See Also:

Formica rufa angusticeps, Formica rufa brevisetosa, Formica rufa constricta, Formica rufa obscurata, Formica rufa rufopratensoides, Formica rufa tshugunovi

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2020)

Extant: 6 valid subspecies

Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761 PDF: 426 (q.m.) SWEDEN. Palearctic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

[Note: not Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 580 (w.); discussion in Yarrow, 1954c: 313; Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5.].
Combination in Formicina: Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840 PDF: 172.
Status as species: Scopoli, 1763: 313; Linnaeus, 1767 PDF: 962; Fabricius, 1775 PDF: 391; Fabricius, 1782: 489; Retzius, 1783 PDF: 74; Geoffroy, in Fourcroy, 1785: 452; Fabricius, 1787 PDF: 308; Razoumowsky, 1789: 223; Gmelin, 1790 PDF: 2798; Christ, 1791 PDF: 510; Olivier, 1792: 492; Fabricius, 1793 PDF: 351; Latreille, 1798 PDF: 37; Latreille, 1802a: 143; Walckenaer, 1802: 160; Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 398; Jurine, 1807 PDF: 272; Gravenhorst, 1807 PDF: 286; Latreille, 1809 PDF: 126; Latreille, 1817a: 98; Lamarck, 1817 PDF: 95; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Brullé, 1833 PDF: 327; Losana, 1834 PDF: 318; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 201; Zetterstedt, 1838: 448; Schilling, 1839 PDF: 54; Guérin-Méneville, 1844a PDF: 421; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 902; Nylander, 1846b PDF: 1047; Foerster, 1850a: 13; Smith, 1851 PDF: 1; Schenck, 1852 PDF: 23; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 328 (redescription); Smith, 1855a PDF: 100; Nylander, 1856b PDF: 60; Gredler, 1858 PDF: 6; Smith, 1858a PDF: 2, 51; Duméril, 1860: 931; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 46 (in key); Meinert, 1861: 311; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 420; Roger, 1863b PDF: 12; Cresson, 1865b PDF: 426; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873 PDF: 165; Forel, 1874 PDF: 52 (in key); André, 1874b: 184 (in key); Emery, 1878a PDF: ix (in list); Emery, 1878: 48; Emery & Forel, 1879: 450; Saunders, 1880 PDF: 204; Provancher, 1881b PDF: 357; André, 1882c PDF: 184 (in key); Provancher, 1883 PDF: 600; White, 1884 PDF: 249; Mayr, 1886d PDF: 426; Provancher, 1887: 232 (in key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 256; Nasonov, 1889: 17; Scudder, 1891 PDF: 708; Lameere, 1892: 62; Forel, 1892j PDF: 307; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 206; Ruzsky, 1896 PDF: 68; Saunders, 1896 PDF: 20; Ruzsky, 1902d PDF: 10; Ruzsky, 1903c PDF: 205; Ruzsky, 1904a PDF: 291; Ruzsky, 1905b: 320; Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 112 (in key); Emery, 1909b PDF: 184; Forel, 1909c PDF: 105; Wheeler, 1909g PDF: 172; Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 483; Wasmann, 1910 PDF: 517; Karavaiev, 1912b PDF: 588; Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 425 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1914b PDF: 102; Stitz, 1914 PDF: 91; Ruzsky, 1915b: 6; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Forel, 1915d: 56 (in key); Morice & Durrant, 1915 PDF: 430; Emery, 1916a PDF: 255; Bondroit, 1917a PDF: 174; Wheeler, 1917a PDF: 535; Escherich, 1917: 335 (in key); Nadig, 1918 PDF: 341; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 55; Santschi, 1919e PDF: 246; Bondroit, 1920a PDF: 145; Ruzsky, 1920 PDF: 78; Soudek, 1922b PDF: 79; Vashkevich, 1924b PDF: 147; Ruzsky, 1925a PDF: 287; Ruzsky, 1925b PDF: 43; Emery, 1925d PDF: 253; Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 16 (in key); Kiseleva, 1925 PDF: 74; Ruzsky, 1926 PDF: 109; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926c PDF: 96; Krausse, 1926a: 107; Stärcke, 1926a PDF: 149 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 286; Karavaiev, 1927d: 282 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927e PDF: 345; Lomnicki, 1928 PDF: 8; Karavaiev, 1929d PDF: 214; Karavaiev, 1930b PDF: 148; Karavaiev, 1931b PDF: 32; Karavaiev, 1931c PDF: 113; Karavaiev, 1931e PDF: 216; Gösswald, 1932 PDF: 28; Santschi, 1932e PDF: 72; Teranishi, 1932 PDF: 53; Arnol'di, 1933a: 604 (in key); Teranishi, 1934b PDF: 38; Grandi, 1935 PDF: 104; Karavaiev, 1936: 239 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1936 PDF: 91; Kôno & Sugihara, 1939 PDF: 8; Gösswald, 1941 PDF: 69 (redescription); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 105 (in key); Holgersen, 1942b PDF: 12; Stärcke, 1942a PDF: 22; Holgersen, 1943c PDF: 176 (in key); Holgersen, 1944a PDF: 187; Ruzsky, 1946 PDF: 69; Stärcke, 1947 PDF: 144; Röszler, 1950 PDF: 212; Donisthorpe, 1950e PDF: 1064; Betrem, 1953 PDF: 324 (in key); Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5; Ceballos, 1956: 319; Betrem, 1960b: 76 (in key); Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 93; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 308 (redescription); Kutter, 1968b: 61; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969 PDF: 91; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 222; Collingwood, 1971 PDF: 168; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 184 (redescription); Banert & Pisarski, 1972 PDF: 355; Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (in key); Pisarski, 1975: 48; Van Boven, 1977 PDF: 170; Kutter, 1977c: 273; Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 94 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 554 (in key); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 141; Douwes, 1979 PDF: 187; Douwes, 1981b PDF: 217; Pavan, 1981: 1; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a PDF: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 287 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 86; Gösswald, 1989: 16; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 277; Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 98; Radchenko, 1994b: 114 (in key); Douwes, 1995: 97; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Poldi et al., 1995: 8; Tang et al., 1995: 106; Czechowski & Douwes, 1996: 125; Espadaler, 1997g PDF: 28; Gallé et al., 1998: 218; Tinaut & Martínez-Ibañez, 1998d PDF: 37 (in key); Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 71; Karaman & Karaman, 2003 PDF: 51; Csosz & Markó, 2005 PDF: 231; Karaman & Karaman, 2005 PDF: 61; Bračko, 2006 PDF: 147; Markó et al., 2006 PDF: 68; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 113 (in key); Bračko, 2007 PDF: 20; Seifert, 2007: 309; Werner & Wiezik, 2007 PDF: 144; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007 PDF: 233; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008 PDF: 134; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 482; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010 PDF: 53; Boer, 2010: 27; Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 59; Karaman, 2011a PDF: 83; Legakis, 2011 PDF: 36; Borowiec & Salata, 2012 PDF: 496; Czechowski et al., 2012: 190; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 32; Kiran & Karaman, 2012 PDF: 11; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 78 (see note in bibliography); Bračko et al., 2014 PDF: 19; Lebas et al., 2016: 176; Radchenko, 2016: 284; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c 10.5281/zenodo.2199191 PDF: 45; Seifert, 2018: 318.
Senior synonym of Formica piniphila: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 328; Nylander, 1856b PDF: 60; Smith, 1858a PDF: 3; Roger, 1863b PDF: 12; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 420; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873 PDF: 165; André, 1874c: 202 (in list); Forel, 1874 PDF: 98 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 450; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 208; Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 425; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 286; Karavaiev, 1936: 240; Gösswald, 1941 PDF: 73; Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 4; Betrem, 1960a PDF: 131 (in text); Betrem, 1960b: 76 (in key); Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 93; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 308; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 222; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 184; Pisarski, 1975: 48; Van Boven, 1977 PDF: 170; Kutter, 1977c: 273; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 71; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 482; Czechowski et al., 2012: 190; Radchenko, 2016: 284.
Material of the nomen nudum Formica apicalis: referred here by Roger, 1862c PDF: 287; Roger, 1863b PDF: 12; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Bolton, 1995b: 202.
Material of the unavailable names Formica rufa polyctena bondroiti, Formica rufa emeryi referred here by Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 4.
Material of the unavailable name Formica rufa pratensis major referred here by Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 93.
[Note: Zetterstedt, 1838: 448, 450, nominates Formica rufa twice. The first mention (p. 448) is to the genuine Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761, as indicated by his sub-entry “Fabr. [1804] Piez. 398.11”. The second mention of Formica rufa is sub-entered “Fabr. [1804] Piez. 400.17,” but in Fabricius, 1804 PDF, this entry refers to Formica rubra, now Myrmica rubra.].

Overview:

Found mainly in Europe. Workers are around 8-10mm in size. Mainly found in Woodland Areas.

// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Canada, United States
    Europe: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic

Identification:

Workers around 5-15mm.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formica rufa   Nylander, W., 1846, Adnotationes in monographiam formicarum borealium Europae., Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 2, pp. 875-944: 902-904, (download) 902-904 4277
Formica rufa   Förster, A., 1850, Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae., Aachen: Unknown Publisher: 13-15, (download) 13-15 8138
Formica rufa   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 8, (download) 8 8200
Formica rufa   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 141-143, (download) 141-143 6175
Formica rufa   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 1-2, (download) 1-2 8200

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 235 times found in Unknown, 78 times found in Forest, 36 times found in heathlands, 13 times found in Anthropogenic, 12 times found in dry grassland, 6 times found in shrubs, 2 times found in Wet grassland, 1 times found in Bosque de Quercus pyrenaica, en un camino, 1 times found in Camping, 2 times found in open forest/forest edge, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 4 times nest mound, 2 times Forrajeando, 2 times on the ground, 1 times Forrajenado en el camino, 1 times under log, 1 times under & in large fallen, rotten log, 1 times Sobre Prunus, 1 times small nest mound, 1 times nest mound made of pine needles, 1 times large nest mound, spruce needles, 1 times large nest mound, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 185 times Manual catch, 38 times Pitfall trap, 18 times search, 6 times Hand, 3 times Malaise trap, 1 times light trap, 1 times Window trap, 1 times Alcohol trap.

Elevations: collected from 250 - 1500 meters, 808 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1866-06-08 and 2019-10-26

Type specimens: Lectotype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0911085; paralectotype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0911084; syntype of Formica gaullei: casent0915378; syntype of Formica rufa meridionalis: casent0911080; syntype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0907599; type of Formica rufa: casent0903276



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