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Species: Formica rufa   Linnaeus, 1761 

Classification:
Download Data

See Also:

Formica rufa brevisetosa, Formica rufa tshugunovi

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Extant: 2 valid subspecies

Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761 PDF: 426 (q.m.) SWEDEN. Palearctic. Type notes: Not Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 580 (w.); discussion in Yarrow, 1954c: 313, Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5. Three Linnaean specimens in LSLC (Day & Fitton, 1978 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1978.tb00012.x PDF: 196). AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Combination in Formicina: Shuckard, 1840e PDF: 172.
Status as species: Scopoli, 1763 PDF: 313; Linnaeus, 1767 PDF: 962; Fabricius, 1775 PDF: 391; Fabricius, 1782: 489; Retzius, 1783 PDF: 74; Geoffroy, 1785: 452; Fabricius, 1787 PDF: 308; Razoumowsky, 1789: 223; Gmelin, 1790 PDF: 2798; Christ, 1791 PDF: 510; Olivier, 1792: 492; Fabricius, 1793 PDF: 351; Latreille, 1798 PDF: 37; Latreille, 1802a PDF: 143; Walckenaer, 1802: 160; Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 398; Jurine, 1807 PDF: 272; Gravenhorst, 1807 PDF: 286; Latreille, 1809 PDF: 126; Latreille, 1817a: 98; Lamarck, 1817 PDF: 95; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Brullé, 1833 PDF: 327; Losana, 1834 PDF: 318; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 201; Zetterstedt, 1838: 448; Schilling, 1839 PDF: 54; Guérin-Méneville, 1844a PDF: 421; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 902; Nylander, 1846b PDF: 1047; Foerster, 1850a: 13; Smith, 1851 PDF: 1; Schenck, 1852 PDF: 23; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 328 (redescription); Smith, 1855a PDF: 100; Nylander, 1856b PDF: 60; Gredler, 1858 PDF: 6; Smith, 1858a PDF: 2, 51; Duméril, 1860: 931; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 46 (in key); Meinert, 1861 PDF: 311; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 420; Roger, 1863b PDF: 12; Cresson, 1865b PDF: 426; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873 PDF: 165; Forel, 1874 PDF: 52 (in key); André, 1874b: 184 (in key); Emery, 1878a PDF: ix (in list); Emery, 1878: 48; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 450; Saunders, 1880 PDF: 204; Provancher, 1881b PDF: 357; André, 1882c PDF: 184 (in key); Provancher, 1883 PDF: 600; White, 1884 PDF: 249; Mayr, 1886d PDF: 426; Provancher, 1887: 232 (in key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 256; Nasonov, 1889: 17; Scudder, 1891 PDF: 708; Lameere, 1892: 62; Forel, 1892j PDF: 307; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 206; Ruzsky, 1896 PDF: 68; Saunders, 1896 PDF: 20; Ruzsky, 1902d PDF: 10; Ruzsky, 1903c PDF: 205; Ruzsky, 1904a PDF: 291; Ruzsky, 1905b: 320; Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 112 (in key); Emery, 1909b PDF: 184; Forel, 1909c PDF: 105; Wheeler, 1909g PDF: 172; Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 483; Wasmann, 1910 PDF: 517; Karavaiev, 1912b PDF: 588; Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 425 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1914b PDF: 102; Stitz, 1914 PDF: 91; Ruzsky, 1915b: 6; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Forel, 1915d: 56 (in key); Morice & Durrant, 1915 PDF: 430; Emery, 1916a PDF: 255; Bondroit, 1917a PDF: 174; Wheeler, 1917a PDF: 535; Escherich, 1917: 335 (in key); Nadig, 1918 PDF: 341; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 55; Santschi, 1919e PDF: 246; Bondroit, 1920a PDF: 145; Ruzsky, 1920 PDF: 78; Soudek, 1922b PDF: 79; Vashkevich, 1924b PDF: 147; Ruzsky, 1925a PDF: 287; Ruzsky, 1925b PDF: 43; Emery, 1925d PDF: 253; Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 16 (in key); Kiseleva, 1925 PDF: 74; Ruzsky, 1926 PDF: 109; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926c PDF: 96; Krausse, 1926a: 107; Stärcke, 1926a PDF: 149 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 286; Karavaiev, 1927d: 282 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927e PDF: 345; Lomnicki, 1928 PDF: 8; Karavaiev, 1929d PDF: 214; Karavaiev, 1930b PDF: 148; Karavaiev, 1931b PDF: 32; Karavaiev, 1931c PDF: 113; Karavaiev, 1931e PDF: 216; Gösswald, 1932 PDF: 28; Santschi, 1932e PDF: 72; Teranishi, 1932 PDF: 53; Arnol'di, 1933a: 604 (in key); Teranishi, 1934b PDF: 38; Grandi, 1935 PDF: 104; Karavaiev, 1936: 239 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1936 PDF: 91; Kôno & Sugihara, 1939 PDF: 8; Gösswald, 1941 PDF: 69 (redescription); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 105 (in key); Holgersen, 1942b PDF: 12; Stärcke, 1942a PDF: 22; Holgersen, 1943c PDF: 176 (in key); Holgersen, 1944a PDF: 187; Ruzsky, 1946 PDF: 69; Stärcke, 1947 PDF: 144; Röszler, 1950 PDF: 212; Donisthorpe, 1950e PDF: 1064; Betrem, 1953 PDF: 324 (in key); Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5; Ceballos, 1956: 319; Betrem, 1960b: 76 (in key); Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 93; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 308 (redescription); Kutter, 1968b PDF: 61; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969 PDF: 91; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 222; Collingwood, 1971 PDF: 168; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 184 (redescription); Banert & Pisarski, 1972 PDF: 355; Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (in key); Pisarski, 1975: 48; Van Boven, 1977 PDF: 170; Kutter, 1977c: 273; Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 94 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 554 (in key); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 141; Douwes, 1979 PDF: 187; Douwes, 1981b PDF: 217; Pavan, 1981: 1; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a PDF: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 287 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 86; Gösswald, 1989: 16; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 277; Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 98; Radchenko, 1994b: 114 (in key); Douwes, 1995: 97; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Poldi et al., 1995: 8; Tang et al., 1995: 106; Czechowski & Douwes, 1996: 125; Espadaler, 1997g PDF: 28; Gallé et al., 1998: 218; Tinaut & Martínez-Ibañez, 1998d PDF: 37 (in key); Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 71; Karaman & Karaman, 2003 PDF: 51; Csosz & Markó, 2005 PDF: 231; Karaman & Karaman, 2005 PDF: 61; Bračko, 2006 PDF: 147; Markó et al., 2006 PDF: 68; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 113 (in key); Bračko, 2007 PDF: 20; Seifert, 2007: 309; Werner & Wiezik, 2007 PDF: 144; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007 PDF: 233; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008 PDF: 134; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 482; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010 PDF: 53; Boer, 2010: 27; Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 59; Karaman, 2011b PDF: 83; Legakis, 2011 PDF: 36; Borowiec & Salata, 2012 PDF: 496; Czechowski et al., 2012: 190; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 32; Kiran & Karaman, 2012 PDF: 11; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 78 (see note in bibliography); Bračko et al., 2014 PDF: 19; Lebas et al., 2016: 176; Radchenko, 2016: 284; Steiner et al., 2017: 9; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c 10.5281/zenodo.2199191 PDF: 45; Seifert, 2018: 318; Werner et al., 2018 PDF: 6; Seifert, 2021 10.25849/myrmecol.news_031:133 PDF: 152 (diagnosis).
Senior synonym of Formica piniphila: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 328; Nylander, 1856b PDF: 60; Smith, 1858a PDF: 3; Roger, 1863b PDF: 12; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 420; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873 PDF: 165; André, 1874c: 202 (in list); Forel, 1874 PDF: 98 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 450; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 208; Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 425; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 286; Karavaiev, 1936: 240; Gösswald, 1941 PDF: 73; Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 4; Betrem, 1960a PDF: 131 (in text); Betrem, 1960b: 76 (in key); Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 93; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 308; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 222; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 184; Pisarski, 1975: 48; Van Boven, 1977 PDF: 170; Kutter, 1977c: 273; Bolton, 1995b: 202; Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 71; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 482; Czechowski et al., 2012: 190; Radchenko, 2016: 284; Seifert, 2021 10.25849/myrmecol.news_031:133 PDF: 152.
Material of the nomen nudum Formica apicalis referred here by Roger, 1862c PDF: 287; Roger, 1863b PDF: 12; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 245; Bolton, 1995b: 202.
Material of the unavailable names Formica rufa polyctena bondroiti, Formica rufa rufa emeryi referred here by Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 4.
Material of the unavailable name Formica rufa pratensis major Gösswald, 1941 referred here by Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 93.
[Note: Zetterstedt, 1838: 448, 450, nominates Formica rufa twice. The first mention (p. 448) is to the genuine Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761, as indicated by his sub-entry “Fabr. [1804] Piez. 398.11”. The second mention of Formica rufa is sub-entered “Fabr. [1804] Piez. 400.17,” but in Fabricius, 1804 PDF, this entry refers to Formica rubra, now Myrmica rubra.]

Overview:

Found mainly in Europe. Workers are around 8-10mm in size. Mainly found in Woodland Areas.

// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Canada, United States
    Asia: Armenia, China, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Uzbekistan
    Europe: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Nearctic, Palearctic

Identification:

Workers around 5-15mm.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formica rufa   Nylander, W., 1846, Adnotationes in monographiam formicarum borealium Europae., Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 2, pp. 875-944: 902-904, (download) 902-904 4277
Formica rufa   Förster, A., 1850, Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae., Aachen: Unknown Publisher: 13-15, (download) 13-15 8138
Formica rufa   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 8, (download) 8 8200
Formica rufa   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 141-143, (download) 141-143 6175
Formica rufa   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 1-2, (download) 1-2 8200

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 235 times found in Unknown, 78 times found in Forest, 36 times found in heathlands, 13 times found in Anthropogenic, 12 times found in dry grassland, 6 times found in shrubs, 3 times found in forest edge, 1 times found in Bosque de Quercus pyrenaica, en un camino, 1 times found in Camping, 2 times found in Wet grassland, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 4 times on the ground, 4 times nest mound, 2 times Forrajeando, 1 times Forrajenado en el camino, 1 times under log, 1 times under & in large fallen, rotten log, 1 times Sobre Prunus, 1 times small nest mound, 1 times on tree, 1 times nest mound made of pine needles, 1 times large nest mound, spruce needles, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 185 times Manual catch, 38 times Pitfall trap, 21 times search, 6 times Hand, 3 times Malaise trap, 1 times Window trap, 1 times Alcohol trap, 1 times light trap.

Elevations: collected from 250 - 1500 meters, 800 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1866-06-08 and 2020-08-09

Type specimens: Lectotype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0911085; paralectotype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0911084; syntype of Formica gaullei: casent0915378; syntype of Formica rufa obscurata: casent0912252; syntype of Formica rufa meridionalis: casent0911080; syntype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0907599; type of Formica rufa: casent0903276



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