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Species: Formica rufa   Linnaeus, 1761 

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See Also:

Formica rufa angusticeps, Formica rufa brevisetosa, Formica rufa constricta, Formica rufa obscurata, Formica rufa rufopratensoides, Formica rufa tshugunovi

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2018)

6 subspecies

Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761 PDF: 426 (q.m.) EUROPE. Palearctic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history


Found mainly in Europe. Workers are around 8-10mm in size. Mainly found in Woodland Areas.


   (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists)
Nearctic Region: Canada, United States
Palearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan


Workers around 5-15mm.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formica rufa   Nylander, W., 1846, Adnotationes in monographiam formicarum borealium Europae., Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 2, pp. 875-944: 902-904, (download) 902-904 4277
Formica rufa   Förster, A., 1850, Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae., Aachen: Unknown Publisher: 13-15, (download) 13-15 8138
Formica rufa   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 8, (download) 8 8200
Formica rufa   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 141-143, (download) 141-143 6175
Formica rufa   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 1-2, (download) 1-2 8200

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 0 times found in Unknown, 0 times found in Forest, 0 times found in heathlands, 0 times found in Anthropogenic, 0 times found in dry grassland, 0 times found in shrubs, 1 times found in Bosque de Quercus pyrenaica, en un camino, 2 times found in open forest/forest edge, 1 times found in Camping, 0 times found in Rocks (rocky-calcareous grasslands), ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 2 times Forrajeando, 2 times nest mound, 1 times Forrajenado en el camino, 1 times under log, 1 times under & in large fallen, rotten log, 1 times Sobre Prunus, 1 times small nest mound, 1 times on the ground, 1 times nest mound made of pine needles, 1 times large nest mound, spruce needles, 1 times large nest mound, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 0 times Manual catch, 0 times Pitfall trap, 13 times search, 6 times Hand, 0 times Malaise trap, 0 times light trap, 0 times Window trap, 0 times Alcohol trap.

Elevations: collected from 500 - 1500 meters, 811 meters average

Type specimens: Lectotype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0911085; paralectotype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0911084; syntype of Formica gaullei: casent0915378; syntype of Formica rufa meridionalis: casent0911080; syntype of Formica rufa rufopratensis: casent0907599; type of Formica rufa: casent0903276

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