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Species: Eurhopalothrix procera   (Emery, 1897) 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2023)

Rhopalothrix procera Emery, 1897c PDF: 572, pl. 14, fig. 18 (w.q.) NEW GUINEA (Papua New Guinea). Australasia. Primary type information: Primary type material: syntype workers (number not stated), 1 syntype queen. Primary type localities: syntypes Papua New Guinea: Berlinhafen (= Aitepe) (L. Biró), Seleo I. (L. Biró), and Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen (= Madang) (L. Biró). Primary type depositories HNHM, MSNG. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

// Distribution


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Asia: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
    Oceania: Australia, Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Australasia, Indomalaya, Oceania

Distribution Notes:

Islands of Cebu, Luzon, Mindanao, Negros, Palawan. Costa Rica.


Medial frons bulging, with a cluster of 4 erect setae on the protruberance; first gastral sternite with sharp longitudinal median keel anteriorly.


Longino (2013): A single alate queen from La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica closely matches E. procera, based on literature descriptions and images on AntWeb. The specimen was obtained in a canopy fogging sample in October, 1994, as part of a large-scale arthropod survey project. In spite of intensive sampling for ants at this site (Longino et al., 2002), no other specimens were collected, and this single queen remains the only known specimens of E. procera from the New World. This is remarkable, because E. procera is a polytypic species found in New Guinea and multiple Pacific islands west of New Guinea (Brown and Kempf, 1960; Taylor, 1968, 1980; AntWeb, 2013), and related species also occur in this region (Taylor, 1968, 1970, 1980). Taylor (1980) describes E. procera as "Widespread in rain forest and marginal habitats; East Indies, Philippines, Melanesia, Polynesia east to the Samoan Islands, and Cape York Peninsula ..." Its occurrence on multiple oceanic islands and in marginal habitats suggests a high dispersal ability and raises the possibility that it is an adventive species in Costa Rica. Alternatively, it may be a relict lineage with a rare Neotropical representative.

Eurhopalothrix procera has the double tooth row found in E. gravis and relatives. The double tooth row is visible on the La Selva queen and on the AntWeb image of a queen from the Philippines (Holotype of E. procera subdentatus [Donisthorpe, 1942], a junior synonym of E. procera). It is unknown whether other species in the procera group also have the double tooth row. Cursory examination of the three Old World species E. australis, E. dubia, and E. omnivaga showed that these species lack the double tooth row.

The labrum of the La Selva queen is elongate, triangular, with two small lobes at the apex. The labrum is visible on the image of the E. procera subdentatus holotype, and appears similar. The La Selva queen is smaller and with narrower head than other known E. procera queens. Brown and Kempf (1960) report worker HW 0.98–1.35 and CI 106–111, with queens being the same as or slightly larger than workers. The La Selva queen has HW 0.91 and CI 95.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 30 times found in Rainforest, 3 times found in montane rainforest, 3 times found in Partly cleared forest, 1 times found in - leaf litter ~7cm deep, 2 times found in swamp forest, 1 times found in Rainforest s.l., 1 times found in 1° rainforest, 1 times found in Eucalyptus woodland, 1 times found in exposed montane summit, 1 times found in Lowland Rainforest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 3 times 1 square meter of sifted leaf litter, 5 times litter, 1 times foraging on mossy tree trunk, 2 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 2 times sifted leaf litter, 2 times on old ivory nut, 1 times hand collected from 1 sq m sifted leaf litter, 2 times ex. rotting wood, 1 times ex small pile rotten wood, 1 times ex rotting wood piece, 1 times ex rotting log, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 10 times Winkler, 4 times hand collected, 7 times Berlesate, 2 times search, 2 times hand, 1 times Pyrethrum knockdown, 1 times berlesate ANIC No.648, 1 times direct collection, 1 times flight trap, 1 times hand collection, 1 times malaise trap/ethanol, ...

Elevations: collected from 17 - 1640 meters, 470 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1896-12-31 00:00:00.0 and 2015-04-23 00:00:00.0

Type specimens: Holotype of Rhopalothrix subdentatus: casent0900934; Not Provided: casent0248813, casent0248814, casent0248921, casent0248974, casent0741770, casent0741771, casent0741822, casent0741889, casent0741890, casent0741902, casent0741931, casent0742663, casent0742664, casent0742665; syntype of Eurhopalothrix procera: casent0904971; syntype of Rhopalothrix kokodensis: casent0900931, casent0900932; syntype of Rhopalothrix procera: casent0916633; syntype of Rhopalothrix procera malua: casent0900930; syntype of Rhopalothrix procera samoana: casent0900933; syntype of Rhopalothrix procera ballionii: casent0909349; syntype of Rhopalothrix procera malua: casent0904972; syntype of Rhopalothrix procera samoana: casent0912538; type of Rhopalothrix angulinodis: focol2179

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