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Species: Eciton hamatum   (Fabricius, 1782) 

Classification:
Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Formica hamata Fabricius, 1782: 494 (s.) FRENCH GUIANA. Neotropic. Primary type information: Type-material: holotype worker. Type-locality: French Guiana: Cayenne (no collector’s name). Type-depository: ZMUC. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Mayr, 1886b PDF: 121 (w.); Emery, 1896g PDF: 39 (m.); Wheeler, 1925d PDF: 145 (q.); Wheeler, 1943 PDF: 327 (l.).
Combination in Myrmecia: Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 425.
Combination in Atta: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 129; Leach, 1815: 147.
Combination in Eciton: Latreille, 1804: 179; Latreille, 1817c: 75; Smith, 1855c PDF: 161.
Status as species: Fabricius, 1787 PDF: 311; Gmelin, 1790 PDF: 2803; Olivier, 1792: 502; Fabricius, 1793 PDF: 364; Latreille, 1802a PDF: 242; Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 425; Latreille, 1804: 179; Leach, 1815: 147; Latreille, 1817c: 75; Lamarck, 1817 PDF: 97; Smith, 1855c PDF: 161; Smith, 1858a PDF: 148; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 409; Roger, 1863b PDF: 36; Norton, 1868a PDF: 61; Norton, 1868b PDF: 45; Mayr, 1886b PDF: 117 (in key); Forel, 1886a PDF: 217; Emery, 1890c PDF: 38; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 3; Emery, 1894d PDF: 176; Emery, 1894l PDF: 45; Forel, 1895b PDF: 119; Emery, 1896g PDF: 39; Forel, 1899b PDF: 22; Emery, 1900e: 176 (in key); Wheeler, 1907b PDF: 271; Forel, 1907h PDF: 2; Emery, 1910b PDF: 20; Forel, 1912d PDF: 41; Mann, 1916 PDF: 419; Crawley, 1916b PDF: 368; Forel, 1921b PDF: 133; Santschi, 1921g PDF: 88; Wheeler, 1921d PDF: 309; Mann, 1922 PDF: 19; Borgmeier, 1923: 38; Wheeler, 1923a PDF: 1; Wheeler, 1925a: 1; Santschi, 1925b PDF: 12; Borgmeier, 1936b PDF: 51; Santschi, 1939f PDF: 161; Borgmeier, 1953 PDF: 9; Borgmeier, 1955 PDF: 214 (redescription); Tafuri, 1957 PDF: 21; Borgmeier, 1958a PDF: 204; Kempf, 1960e: 387; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1964c PDF: 134; Kempf, 1970b PDF: 323; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 102; Watkins, 1976 PDF: 10 (in key); Watkins, 1982 PDF: 209 (in key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1984a PDF: 269; Bolton, 1995b: 185; Palacio, 1999: 152 (in key); Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF: 254; Bezděčková et al., 2015 PDF: 109; Palacio, 2019 PDF: 601.
Senior synonym of Eciton testacea: Mayr, 1863a PDF: 409; Borgmeier, 1955 PDF: 214; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 102; Bolton, 1995b: 185.
// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Neotropical

Distribution Notes:

Mexico to central Brazil, Bolivia. Type locality French Guiana. Costa Rica: wet forest lowlands throughout the country; absent in dry forest and montane areas.

Biology:

Natural History:

In lowland wet forest habitats this is one of the most common Eciton species. Raids are always in columns, never in a carpet like E. burchellii. Raids can be day or night, and I frequently observe raiding columns ascending trees. Prey are often brood of vespid wasps and the ant genera Dolichoderus and Camponotus, suggesting that E. hamatum is mainly an arboreal forager.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Emery, C., 1896, Studi sulle formiche della fauna Neotropica., Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 28, pp. 33-107

E. hamatumHNS? L. fig. 3.

[[ male ]] Opaco, ferrugineo chiaro, il dorso dell'addome, le suture del torace, una riga mediana sul mesonoto, Io scutello, ii vertice e le zampe piu scuri, le mandibole e le antenne brune. Addome e zampe pubescenti; tutto il corpo irto di peli fulvi piuttosto corti. Il tegumento e coperto di fittissima punteggiatura fondamentale, e sparso di numerose fossette dalle quali sorgono i peli ritti; solo i margini dei segmenti addominali sono lucidi e glabri nelle loro parti laterali. Il capo e largo quanto il torace. Le mandibole, vedute d'innanzi e semichiuse, appariscono angolose an margine esterno vicino alla base, poi quasi rette fino all'apice che e debolmente curvato e acuto, preceduto sul margine interno da un grosso dente; vedute di fianco si allargano dalla base fino oltre il terzo, dove ii margine posteriore (interno) offre un angolo ottuso, quindi procedono allargandosi insensibilmente un poco, per formare, prima dell'estremita, un angolo o grosso dente e restringersi bruscamente, con margine concavo, fino alia punta. Il torace e relativamente stretto; dietro lo scutello, discende quasi perpendicularmente, fino all'inserzione del peduncolo; il metanoto ha due sporgenze arrotondate. Il peduncolo e trapezoideo, con gli angoli rotondati, meno allargato indietro che nelle specie affini, distintamente depresso nel mezzo. Le ali sono giallo d'ambra, con la venatura ferruginea. L. 14 mm.

Di un altro [[ male ]] di EcitonHNS, egualmente inedito ed affine ai precedenti, ebbi 3 esemplari del Paraguay dal Balzan. Appartiene verosimilmente all' E. vagans Ol.HNS o all'i E. RogeriHNS Torre { mexicanum RogHNS.). Nel dubbio, lo descrivo con nome nuovo.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 10 times found in wet forest, 12 times found in lowland rainforest, 4 times found in montane wet forest, 3 times found in tropical wet forest, 6 times found in mature wet forest, 7 times found in rainforest, 1 times found in lowland tropical rain forest, 2 times found in lowland wet forest, 1 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 3 times found in tropical rainforest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 6 times column on ground, 10 times ex sifted leaf litter, 5 times bivouac in fallen split Bobax over stream (off clearing), 5 times raiding columns, 4 times Bovouac, underside broken tree, on Snyder-Molino Trail (3), 2 times column, 2 times raiding column with prey, 3 times at bait, 3 times raiding column, 1 times nocturnal emigration column, 1 times ground foragers, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 24 times search, 4 times Mercury Vapor Light, 3 times hand collecting, 8 times MiniWinkler, 8 times Lighttrap, 1 times light trap, 3 times Baiting, 2 times observation, 2 times blacklight, 2 times direct collection, 1 times Malaise, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1270 meters, 158 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1933-11-24 and 2020-01-20

Type specimens: syntype of Eciton pittieri: casent0902636, casent0905949; syntype of Eciton amazona: casent0911383; syntype of Eciton amazona lividior: casent0911384, casent0911385; syntype of Eciton hamatum funesta: casent0911379, casent0911380; syntype of Eciton hamatum mattogrossensis: casent0911381, casent0911382



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