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Species: Bothroponera pachyderma   (Emery, 1901) 

Classification:
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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Pachycondyla (Bothroponera) pachyderma Emery, 1901b PDF: 49 (w.q.) CAMEROON. Afrotropic. Primary type information: Type-material: syntype workers, syntype queens (numbers not stated). Type-locality: Cameroon: (no further data) (L. Conradt). Type-depository: MSNG. Type notes: Joma & Mackay, 2020 10.3157/061.146.0206 PDF: 372, record syntype males, but these are not mentioned in the original description; also, a paralectotype is mentioned, but there is no lectotype designation. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Combination in Pachycondyla: Brown, 1995a: 308.
// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Kenya, Mozambique
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269

Bothroponera pachyderma (Emery)HNS

Manamana, [[worker]]; Bafwasende, [[worker]]; Medje, [[worker]]; Ngayu. [[worker]]; Niapu, [[worker]], [[queen]]; Niangara, [[worker]]; Akenge, [[worker]], [[queen]] (Lang and Chapin). The specimens from Manamana, fourteen in number, are accompanied by the note: "Found under a log. When it was lifted the ants feigned death." The specimen from Bafwasende is very small. The specimens from the other localities, seventy-four in number, were all taken from the stomachs of toads (Bufo polycercus, superciliaris, funereus, and luberosus). One specimen from Akenge was taken from the stomach of a frog (Rana albolabris).

I believe I have identified this species correctly. All the specimens, both workers and females, have a blood-red, subtriangular spot at the middle of the posterior border of each gastric segment. I regard Santschii B. sculpturataHNS, described from a female, as synonymous with Emery's pachydermaHNS.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 14 times found in rainforest, 2 times found in Primary forest, selectively logged 60 years previously, 2 times found in Prim. unlog. For., 2 times found in coastal lowland rainforest, 1 times found in Coffee Plantation, 1 times found in rainforest, selectively logged 60 years previously, 1 times found in Sec. For, 1 times found in cocoa, 1 times found in mature swamp forest.

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 7 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 1 times Under rotten log, 3 times ex. Rotten log, 2 times sited within forest, 2 times ex rotten log, 1 times sifted litter, 1 times on low vegetation, 1 times leaf litter, 1 times In soil, 1 times ex sifted leaf litter, 1 times ex rotten stick on ground, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 6 times MW 50 sample transect, 5m, 2 times Hand collected, 3 times Hand, 3 times pitfall trap, PF bucket, 1 times search, 2 times Yellow pan trap, 1 times Pitfall, Baits, Litter sieving/Winkler, Aspirator, 1 times Winkler, 1 times Berlese funnel litter sample, 1 times Hand collected, scraping soil to depth of 30 cm.

Elevations: collected from 110 - 1337 meters, 566 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1909-12-01 and 2019-01-10

Type specimens: syntype of Bothroponera pachyderma attenuata: casent0922363, casent0922374; syntype of Pachycondyla pachyderma attenata: rmcaent000017727; type of Bothroponera pachyderma attenuata: casent0922357; type of Bothroponera pachyderma postsquamosa: casent0922358



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