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Atta sexdens, along with A. cephalotes, is the most widespread member of its genus. Its northern most range is Mexico, and extends through Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua), into South America (Ecuador, Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil, Surinam) and Trinidad and Tobago (Hlldobler & Wilson, 1990; Kempf, 1972; Weber, 1972). The species has a wider tolerance for nest habitats, and is found in closed-canopy-forest, open grassland and disturbed habitats (Solomon, 2007; Weber, 1969). Atta sexdens is a considered a serious pest throughout its range, causing damage to a wide variety of agricultural crops and ornamentals (Cherrett, 1986).
Atta sexdens vs. A. cephalotes
Atta sexdens is highly variable, both within the same colony and across populations. Workers vary in shape, color, sculpture and pubescence (Borgmeier, 1959). Among intercepted attines, the species is most readily confused with A. cephalotes, but can be distinguished by the lack of wooly hairs on the heads of major workers, the duller more opaque integument caused by a dense netting of hexagonal microsculpture, and the 1-2 small teeth or dents on the head anterior to the posterolateral spines. Among other attines, A. sexdens is most readily confused with A. capiguara, but can be separated by the microsculpture netting referred to above (Borgmeier, 1959).
Translated from Borgemeir 1959b
Type locality. - Suriname, Paramaribo.
Workers. - Maxima (Fig. 2; Paramaribo). Length 12 mm. Herzfoermig head, posterior margin strongly bulged. Head width 5 mm, length without mandibles, 4, 2 mm. Rudimentarily ocelli, sometimes absent. Occiput cut. Vertex laterally without tooth, sometimes with tubercles. Occipitalzahn undspitz shortly. Fascias short, with teeth. Eye keels curved inward above, below with a short tooth, also with short ventral tooth. Scape 3, 4 mm. Mandibles with blunt teeth. Thorax length 5, 4 mm. Lower Pronotal zahn strong, slightly curved. The 4 Mesonotal zaehne short, the front conical. Epinotum keeled. Epinotal spines judged longer than the Mesonotal zaehne, but shorter than their mutual distance at the base, straight back. Petiole rounded. Postpetiole keeled, width 1, 3 mm, length 0, 8 mm. Gaster width 3 mm, 5 mm hind tibiae. Mandibles, clypeus and scape shiny. Body dull, densely finely punctate, forehead wrinkled in the middle of something. Protruding hair quite short, in the middle of the forehead, occiput and sides of the head scattered, abundant on the thorax, and gaster Sielchen. Pubescence on sparse, abundant pronotum. Hairy legs diagonally. Reddish brown to dark reddish brown stain. Media (Paramaribo). Length 7 mm. Head width 3 mm. Vertex with very short lateral tooth. Occipital spines just zieml. in length. Thoracic spines pointed, shorter than the front mesonotal spines epinotal spines. Matt. Forehead in the middle with Laengsrunzeln. Long hair on the head and gaster, shorter thorax, scattered pubescence. Rusty brown stain. - Minima (Paramaribo). Length 2, 2 mm. Head width 0.8 mm. Front Mesonotalzaehne very short, so long as the occipital zaehne; rear mesonotal zaehne obsolete; Epinotal zaehne longer. Matt. Hairs on thorax sparse, longer on head and gaster. Wei b c hen (Paramaribo). - Length 19-20 mm. Head width 5 mm, sides converging towards the front, rear edge bulges gently. Occipital zaehne short side vertex with weak swelling or TuberkeI. Ocelli small. Eyes convex. Eye tooth keels obsolete. Fascias with teeth. Without ventral tooth. Scape 3 mm. Mandibles long, with pointed Apikalzahn and 8 blunt teeth. Thorax length 8, 5 mm. Scutellum without a furrow. Epinotum over the base of the short teeth, with swelling. Petiole and blunt postpetiole side with teeth or cusps. Gaster width 7, 5 mm. Front corners poorly marked. Hind tibiae 5 mm. Wing 27 mm. Mandibles, clypeus, scape and legs shiny. Matt body. Prominent short hairs scattered on head, thorax and gaster more abundant. Legs covered with short oblique. Pubescenz spaerJich scatters. Rusty brown color, blacked Gaster.
Males (Paramaribo). - Length 14 mm. Head over the eyes wide ~ 2 mm. Occipital zaehne short and pointed. Eyes strongly convex. Fascias without teeth. Scape 2 mm. Mandibles narrow and short, with Apikalzahn and 7 weak teeth. Thorax length 5, 75 mm. Pronotalzahn triangular shortly. Epinotum unreinforced. Gaster width of 5, 4 mm .. Tibie III, 4, 6 mm. Wing 20 mm. Genitalia (Fig. 14, 23): Stipes slender and pointed, as long as the associate volume, apical membrane with a narrow hairy. Volsellen triangular, slightly curved inwards, tapering apically. Sagittae with strong vertically erect chitinisierten sides, in profile triangular, upper margin bulged. Subgenital concave apically. Matt. Gaster shiny weak. Head, thorax and pedicel thick and long woolly hair, the legs on the ventral side. Gaster, scape pubescent, and short tracks. Wrinkled head. Stain dark brown, legs lighter.
Geographer. Dissemination. - Of all the species of Atta sexdens has the largest distribution: Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia (Guarayos, Trinidad), Venezuela, Guyana. Suriname, B ~ asilien, Paraguay, Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes), 22, 1933, p. 26 [Guatemala], and vol. 10, 1921, p. 146 [Montevideo]. Both figures are re-examined must. In Guatemala, it may also colombica urn, and perhaps in Montevideo urn Acromyrmex sp.
Variation. - Both within the same colony, as in the geograph. Proliferation zone vary the workers in paint, sculpture, gloss and hair, with some soldiers, the head is rubbed as in others he is furnished with hair, never the hair missing shots; in specimens from the south of Brazil the gaster on the sides is Zllweilen shiny ( the smallest workers may be the whole gaster shiny), and sometimes the show occipital lobes front teeth 1-2 on each side; the Epinotaldornen Zllweilen are strongly directed upwards; specimens from S. Catarina show sometimes blackened thorax and pedicel. The females are slightly smaller than the Paramaribo from Brazil, which varies between 27-30 mm Fluegellaenge. Among the males falls on the strong variation of Sagitta, the upper edge (in profile) bulges sometimes deep, sometimes even (d Borgm. In 1950, fig 18-29).
Discussion. - Atta sexdens is capiguara the next, and the soldiers can be easily confused, but differ by the micro-sculpture of the head at sexdens densely netted, so that the tegument is dull, at capiguara extensive to 50dass at high magnification, a certain luster notice is. The females have sexdens schwarzbrauntn Gaster, from the bright-red capiguara Gaster. The males of both species differ in the Sagitta, which are very similar in profile, but in dorsal view appearing Oberraender of capiguara turned inward, and the Seitenwaende are not vertical, but more oblique. Opaciceps of robusta and the soldiers of different sexdens by the scalp and through the smaller entertainments. The mean of sexdens workers are distinguished from robusta, and opaciceps laevigata little. Also, the females and males.
Borgmeier, T. (1959) Revision der Gattung Atta Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Stud. Entomol., (n.s.)2, 321-390.
Cherrett, J.M. (1986) The biology, pest status and control of leaf-cutting ants. Agric. Zool. Rev., 1, 1-27.
Cherrett, J.M. & Peregrine, D.J. (1976) A review of the status of leaf-cutting ants and their control. Ann. Appl. Biol., 84, 124-128.
Hlldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. (1990) The ants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., xii + 732 pp.
Kempf, W.W. (1972) Catlogo abreviado das formigas da regio Neotropical. Stud. Entomol., 15, 3-344.
Kliejunas, J.T., Tkacz, B.M., Burdsall, H.H., Jr., DeNitto, G.A., Eglitis, A., Haugen, D.A. & Wallner, W.E. (2001) Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Eucalyptus logs and chips from South America. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Forest Products Laboratory. Madison, WI, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-124, 134 p.
Solomon, S.E. (2007) Biogeography and evolution of widespread leafcutting ants, Atta spp. (Formicidae, Attini). Ph.D. thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, xi + 95 p.
|Atta sexdens||Forel, A., 1905, Miscellanea myrmicologiques, II (1905)., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 49, pp. 155-185: 157, (download)||157||4001|
|Atta sexdens||Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 31, (download)||31||21367|
|Atta sexdens||Forel, A., 1905, Miscellanea myrmicologiques, II (1905)., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 49, pp. 155-185: 161-162, (download)||161-162||4001|
|Atta sexdens||Borgmeier, T., 1939, Nova contribuição para o conhecimento das formigas neotropicais (Hym. Formicidae)., Revista de Entomologia, São Paulo 10, pp. 403-428: 424, (download)||424||6484|
Found most commonly in these habitats: 41 times found in Semideciduous seasonal forest, 9 times found in Mata Atlântica, 6 times found in Cerrado, 5 times found in Forest, 1 times found in pasture, 1 times found in Old cassava plot 2yo, 1 times found in rainforest, 1 times found in savanna, 1 times found in scrubby forest, 1 times found in tropical moist forest.
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 0 times Pasture, 1 times Leaf litter, 1 times ground forager(s), 1 times Atta major carrying leaf.
Collected most commonly using these methods: 49 times epigaeic pitfall, 6 times Manual sampling, 5 times direct collection, 5 times Pitfall, 4 times Hypogaeic pitfall, 1 times Hand, 2 times Arboreal pitfall, 1 times Pitfall48h, 1 times search, 0 times Winkler, 1 times Baited pitfall, ...
Elevations: collected from 26 - 1000 meters, 658 meters average
Type specimens: syntype of Atta sexdens fuscata: casent0912496; syntype of Atta sexdens rubropilosa: casent0909449, casent0909450; syntype of Atta vollenweideri piriventris: casent0912497; syntype of Oecodoma abdominalis: casent0900489