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Species: Monomorium pharaonis   (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Classification:
Download Data

See Also:

Monomorium pharaonis_cf1, Monomorium pharaonis_cf2, Monomorium pharaonis_nr

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2021)

Formica pharaonis Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 580 (w.) EGYPT. Palearctic. Primary type information: Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated). Type-locality: Egypt (“Habitat in Aegypto”): (no further data). Type-depository: UUUS (perhaps also in ZMLS). Type notes: Creighton, 1950a PDF: 223, erroneously gives “Type-loc: India?” AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Mayr, 1865 PDF: 90 (m.); André, 1883a: 338 (q.); Forel, 1891c PDF: 164 (w.q.m.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1955c PDF: 121 (l.); Petralia & Vinson, 1980 PDF: 383 (l.); Imai, 1966b PDF: 119 (k.)
Combination in Monomorium: Mayr, 1862 PDF: 752
Status as species: Linnaeus, 1764: 418; Linnaeus, 1767 PDF: 963; Gmelin, 1790 PDF: 2799; Christ, 1791 PDF: 514; Olivier, 1792: 503; Latreille, 1802a PDF: 290; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 752; Roger, 1862c PDF: 294; Roger, 1863b PDF: 32, 49; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 429; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 90; Mayr, 1867a PDF: 95 (redescription); Mayr, 1867d PDF: 441; Mayr, 1872 PDF: 152; Dours, 1873 PDF: 169; André, 1874c: 200 (in key); Mayr, 1876 PDF: 100 (in key); Emery, 1877: 368; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 467; Saunders, 1880 PDF: 222; André, 1881c PDF: 64; Emery, 1881b PDF: 532 (in key); André, 1883a: 333 (in key); André, 1884f: 539; Emery, 1884: 381; Mayr, 1886d PDF: 455; Provancher, 1887: 249; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262; Nasonov, 1889: 29; Emery, 1890c PDF: 48; Forel, 1891c PDF: 163 (redescription); Lameere, 1892: 67; Mayr, 1893b PDF: 201; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 68; Emery, 1893g PDF: 191; Emery, 1894l PDF: 54; Mayr, 1895 PDF: 133; Forel, 1895b PDF: 124; Emery, 1895d PDF: 275; Emery, 1895g PDF: 337; Emery, 1895m: 465; Ruzsky, 1896 PDF: 73; Saunders, 1896 PDF: 41; Mayr, 1896 PDF: 238; Mayr, 1897 PDF: 427; Forel, 1899b PDF: 78; Forel, 1899j: 273; Emery, 1899e PDF: 280; Emery, 1900: 680; Forel, 1900h PDF: 284; Forel, 1901c: 12; Forel, 1901m PDF: 81; Dahl, 1901 PDF: 19; Emery, 1901i PDF: 567; Ruzsky, 1902d PDF: 25; Forel, 1903a PDF: 687; Rothney, 1903: 97; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 202; Ruzsky, 1905b: 638; Forel, 1905f PDF: 20; Wheeler, 1905c PDF: 123; Wheeler, 1905j PDF: 376; Viehmeyer, 1906 PDF: 68; Emery, 1906c PDF: 120; Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 117; Wheeler, 1906g PDF: 2; Wheeler, 1906j PDF: 349; Mayr, 1907b PDF: 12; Forel, 1907g: 91; Forel, 1907h PDF: 4, 17; Forel, 1908c PDF: 45; Forel, 1908a PDF: 65; Wheeler, 1908a PDF: 127; Wheeler, 1908h PDF: 422; Emery, 1908j PDF: 684; Forel, 1909i PDF: 225; Wheeler, 1909d PDF: 339; Stitz, 1910: 145; Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 497; Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 562; Stitz, 1911a PDF: 367; Forel, 1911b PDF: 198; Forel, 1911f PDF: 337; Forel, 1912h PDF: 3; Forel, 1913g PDF: 191; Forel, 1913i PDF: 351; Forel, 1913l PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1913b PDF: 485; Wheeler, 1913d PDF: 115; Bruch, 1914 PDF: 222; Stitz, 1914 PDF: 65; Forel, 1914d PDF: 245; Santschi, 1914d PDF: 354; Viehmeyer, 1914c PDF: 528; Forel, 1915d: 39 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 96, 337; Emery, 1916a PDF: 161; Viehmeyer, 1916a PDF: 132; Arnold, 1916 PDF: 228; Wheeler, 1916c PDF: 8; Wheeler, 1916r: 584; Escherich, 1917: 327; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 143; Luederwaldt, 1918 PDF: 43; Wheeler, 1919d: 271; Wheeler, 1919f PDF: 84; Mann, 1919 PDF: 329; Santschi, 1920h PDF: 161; Santschi, 1920i PDF: 2; Menozzi, 1921 PDF: 27; Mann, 1921 PDF: 443; Emery, 1922c PDF: 173; Wheeler, 1922: 162, 865, 1027; Soudek, 1922b PDF: 24; Wheeler, 1923a PDF: 3; Müller, 1923b PDF: 77; Viehmeyer, 1923 PDF: 91; Crawley, 1924a PDF: 399; Wheeler, 1924c PDF: 246; Santschi, 1924c PDF: 99; Ruzsky, 1925b PDF: 45; Santschi, 1925g PDF: 348; Stitz, 1925c PDF: 119; Wheeler, 1925a: 29; Essig, 1926 PDF: 857; Stärcke, 1926a PDF: 86 (in key); Borgmeier, 1927c PDF: 98; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 103; Finzi, 1927a PDF: 9; Karavaiev, 1927d: 262; Menozzi, 1927e PDF: 117; Wheeler, 1927d PDF: 5; Wheeler, 1927h PDF: 87; Santschi, 1928a PDF: 45; Wheeler, 1928c PDF: 17; Wheeler, 1929g PDF: 7; Wheeler, 1929h PDF: 60; Karavaiev, 1930a PDF: 214; Menozzi, 1930b PDF: 108; Smith, 1930a PDF: 3; Wheeler, 1930b PDF: 99; Wheeler, 1930k PDF: 67; Menozzi, 1931b PDF: 267; Wheeler, 1932a PDF: 10; Wheeler, 1932e PDF: 159; Wheeler, 1932g PDF: 16; Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 65 (in key); Stitz, 1934: 2; Karavaiev, 1934: 117 (redescription); Wheeler, 1934f PDF: 138; Wheeler, 1934i: 13; Goetsch & Menozzi, 1935 PDF: 96; Donisthorpe, 1935 PDF: 633; Grandi, 1935 PDF: 100; Menozzi, 1935c PDF: 320; Zimmermann, 1935 PDF: 27; Wheeler, 1935g: 24; Eidmann, 1936a PDF: 42; Finzi, 1936 PDF: 175; Menozzi, 1936b PDF: 283; Ruzsky, 1936 PDF: 96; Smith, 1937 PDF: 834; Dennis, 1938 PDF: 279; Santschi, 1938a PDF: 39; Finzi, 1939a PDF: 164; Teranishi, 1940: 61; Yasumatsu, 1940c PDF: 68; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 82 (in key); Menozzi, 1942a PDF: 169; Eidmann, 1944 PDF: 449; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1944 PDF: 246; Buren, 1944a PDF: 289; Weber, 1948b PDF: 82; Kusnezov, 1949a PDF: 425; Peacock et al., 1950: 1; Creighton, 1950a PDF: 222; Smith, 1951c PDF: 811; Azuma, 1951 PDF: 87; Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 165; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 236; Ceballos, 1956: 305; Brown, 1958h PDF: 36; Smith, 1958c PDF: 128; Carter, 1962a PDF: 6 (in list); Wilson, 1964b PDF: 8; Linsley & Usinger, 1966 PDF: 175; Baltazar, 1966 PDF: 259; Ettershank, 1966 PDF: 91; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 168 (redescription); Smith, 1967a PDF: 356; Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 68, 103; Kempf, 1968b PDF: 397; Kutter, 1968b PDF: 59; Kempf, 1970a PDF: 24; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 91; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 144; Alayo, 1974 PDF: 14 (in key); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 3 (in key); Hunt & Snelling, 1975 PDF: 22; Pisarski, 1975: 17; Collingwood, 1976a PDF: 303; Taylor, 1976a: 86; Francoeur, 1977b PDF: 207; Van Boven, 1977 PDF: 83; Yensen et al., 1977 PDF: 183; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 538 (in key); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 82 (in key); Smith, 1979: 1383; Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 62; Onoyama, 1980a PDF: 198; Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 27; Barquín, 1981: 207; Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 272; Bolton, 1987 PDF: 356 (redescription); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a PDF: 55; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 272 (in key); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 41; DuBois & LaBerge, 1988: 139; Kugler, 1988: 258; Zolessi et al., 1988: 4; Deyrup et al., 1989 PDF: 96; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 138; Dlussky et al., 1990 PDF: 238; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 357; Ogata, 1991b PDF: 107; Wu & Wang, 1992c PDF: 1307; Morisita et al., 1992: 40; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 164; Hohmann et al., 1993: 155; Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 47; Dlussky, 1994a: 54; Wheeler et al., 1994 PDF: 303; Bolton, 1995b: 265; Douwes, 1995: 88; Poldi et al., 1995: 4; Tang et al., 1995: 70; Wu & Wang, 1995a: 91; Dorow, 1996a PDF: 78; Espadaler, 1997g PDF: 30; Gallé et al., 1998: 214; Tiwari, 1999 PDF: 55; Deyrup et al., 2000: 297; Mathew & Tiwari, 2000 PDF: 304; Zhou, 2001a PDF: 113; Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 61; Mackay & Mackay, 2002 PDF: 148; Wetterer, 2002 PDF: 129; Zhang & Zheng, 2002 PDF: 220; Blard et al., 2003 PDF: 130; Deyrup, 2003 PDF: 45; Imai et al., 2003 PDF: 133; Lin & Wu, 2003: 66; Wetterer & Vargo, 2003 PDF: 417; Coovert, 2005 PDF: 65; Ghosh et al., 2005 PDF: 29; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005 PDF: 28; MacGown & Forster, 2005 PDF: 69; Radchenko, 2005b PDF: 137; Ward, 2005 PDF: 34; Bračko, 2006 PDF: 137; Gómez & Espadaler, 2006 PDF: 228; Heterick, 2006 PDF: 100 (redescription); Markó et al., 2006 PDF: 69; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 94 (in key); Schultz et al., 2006 PDF: 206; Bračko, 2007 PDF: 17; Clouse, 2007b PDF: 248; Don, 2007: 114; Fernández, 2007b: 137; Seifert, 2007: 218; Werner & Wiezik, 2007 PDF: 140; Wetterer et al., 2007 PDF: 15; Wild, 2007b PDF: 33; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007 PDF: 232; Framenau & Thomas, 2008 PDF: 70; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008 PDF: 140; Paknia et al., 2008 PDF: 155; Heterick, 2009 PDF: 164; Terayama, 2009 PDF: 153; Vonshak & Ionescu-Hirsch, 2009 PDF: 43; Boer, 2010: 62; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010 PDF: 19; Mohanraj et al., 2010 PDF: 6; Wetterer, 2010d PDF: 115; Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 57; Karaman, 2011b PDF: 43; Legakis, 2011 PDF: 15; Pfeiffer et al., 2011 PDF: 47; Borowiec & Salata, 2012 PDF: 519; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012 PDF: 258; Czechowski et al., 2012: 169; Ellison et al., 2012: 257; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 46; Kiran & Karaman, 2012 PDF: 21; Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 88; Hita Garcia et al., 2013 PDF: 213; Sarnat et al., 2013 PDF: 71; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 124; Ramage, 2014 PDF: 165; Tohmé & Tohmé, 2014 PDF: 135; Guénard & Economo, 2015 10.11646/zootaxa.4040.2.8: 227; Bharti et al., 2016 PDF: 39; Jaitrong et al., 2016 PDF: 38; Lebas et al., 2016: 304; Radchenko, 2016: 186; Deyrup, 2017: 74; Steiner et al., 2017: 13; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c 10.5281/zenodo.2199191 PDF: 47; Seifert, 2018: 184; Werner et al., 2018 PDF: 7; Dekoninck et al., 2019 PDF: 1155; Fernández & Serna, 2019 PDF: 808; Lubertazzi, 2019 10.3099/MCZ-43.1 PDF: 131; Madl, 2019 PDF: 15; Dias et al., 2020 10.3897/zookeys.967.54432 PDF: 78.
// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Angola, Cameroon, Canary Islands, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Argentina, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay
    Asia: Armenia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Oman, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam
    Europe: Albania, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Jersey, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
    Oceania: Australia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic
  Native to (according to species list records):
    Afrotropical bioregion

Distribution Notes:

Throughout SLO

Biology:

Introduced, in heated premises, temporary outside

Comments:

Introduced species

Notes:

Caste of types: (w)

References:

Williams, D. F., (ed.). 1994. Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1893, Formiciden von Herrn Dr. Fr. Stuhlmann in Ost-Afrika gesammelt., Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 10, pp. 193-201: 9, (download) 9 4386
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1895, Afrikanische Formiciden., Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 10, pp. 124-154: 133, (download) 133 4387
Monomorium pharaonis   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 33, (download) 33 21367
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 163-164, (download) 163-164 6734
Monomorium pharaonis   Emery, C., 1877, Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte prima. Formiche provenienti dall Viaggio dei signori Antinori, Beccari e Issel nel Mar Rosso e nel paese de, Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) 9, pp. 363-381: -1, (download) -1 3735
Monomorium pharaonis   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Monomorium pharaonis   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 162, (download) 162 20597
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1908, Fourmis de Costa-Rica, récoltées par M. Paul Biolley., Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44, pp. 35-72: 45, (download) 45 4014
Monomorium pharaonis   Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 155, (download) 155 21820
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 752-753, (download) 752-753 4445
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1907, The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. No. VI. - Fourmis des Seychelles, Amirantes, Farquhar et Chagos., Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12, pp. 91-94: -1, (download) -1 4010
Monomorium pharaonis   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 62-64, (download) 62-64 6175
Monomorium pharaonis   Heterick, B. E., 2006, A revision of the Malagasy ants belonging to genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 57, pp. 69-202: 100-102, (download) 100-102 21061
Monomorium pharaonis   Fernández, F., 2007, Two new South American species of Monomorium Mayr with taxonomic notes on the genus., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions. (Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80), pp. 128-145: 137, (download) 137 21280

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 14 times found in Unknown, 9 times found in urban/garden, 1 times found in Botanical garden rubber plantation, 8 times found in rainforest, 3 times found in palm forest, 8 times found in Anthropogenic, 2 times found in forest, 2 times found in wet forest, 7 times found in 2º wet forest, 1 times found in mixed forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 7 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 11 times ex sifted leaf litter, 9 times ground forager(s), 4 times on low vegetation, 6 times litter, 1 times in houses, 1 times from inside empty cup o noodles right outside of Delkuu house, 2 times house pest, 3 times on granite, 2 times Ground, 0 times Pasture, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 4 times Random coll. Winkler sifting, 2 times 9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 6 times Winkler, 10 times Manual catch, 5 times hand collected|aspirator, 5 times direct collection, 6 times MiniWinkler, 1 times 6 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 5 times Hand collection, 3 times search, 0 times pitfall trap, ...

Elevations: collected from 2 - 2183 meters, 410 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1869-07-15 and 2021-04-21

Type specimens: Holotype of Myrmica contigua: casent0102682; Lectotype of Monomorium vastator: casent0008625; Lectotype of Myrmica fragilis: casent0102330; Not Provided: casent0248952, casent0248953, casent0248954, casent0713022, casent0713023, casent0713024, casent0713025, casent0713026, casent0713027, casent0713028, casent0713029, casent0713030, casent0713031, casent0715685, casent0715686, casent0715687, casent0715688, casent0735725, casent0735726, casent0735727, casent0742303, casent0742335, casent0742499, casent0742500, casent0742501, casent0742502; unpublished name: Monomorium pharaonis atrigaster: rmcaent000017769



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