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Species: Formica fusca   Linnaeus, 1758 

Classification:
Download Data

See Also:

Formica fusca_cf, Formica fusca_nr, Formica fusca alpicola, Formica fusca fuscolemani, Formica fusca hyrcana, Formica fusca maura, Formica fusca tombeuri

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2020)

Extant: 5 valid subspecies

Formica fusca Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 580 (w.) EUROPE. Palearctic. Primary type information: “Habitat in Europae” Note: type-locality Sweden, after Linnaeus, 1761 PDF: 426, Yarrow, 1954a PDF: 232 AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Status as species: Linnaeus, 1761 PDF: 426; Linnaeus, 1767 PDF: 962; Fabricius, 1782: 490; Retzius, 1783 PDF: 75; Geoffroy, in Fourcroy, 1785: 453; Fabricius, 1787 PDF: 308; Razoumowsky, 1789: 224; Gmelin, 1790 PDF: 2799; Christ, 1791 PDF: 512; Olivier, 1792: 493; Fabricius, 1793 PDF: 352; Latreille, 1798 PDF: 42; Latreille, 1802a PDF: 159; Walckenaer, 1802: 162; Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 399; Jurine, 1807 PDF: 272; Latreille, 1809 PDF: 126; Latreille, 1817a: 99; Lamarck, 1817 PDF: 96; Billberg, 1820: 104; Stephens, 1829b: 357; Losana, 1834 PDF: 317; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 205; Kirby, 1837: 262; Zetterstedt, 1838: 448; Schilling, 1839 PDF: 53; Brullé, 1840: 84; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 919; Nylander, 1849 PDF: 30; Foerster, 1850a: 33; Smith, 1851 PDF: 3; Schenck, 1852 PDF: 43; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 346 (redescription); Smith, 1855a PDF: 104; Nylander, 1856b PDF: 65; Gredler, 1858 PDF: 9; Smith, 1858a PDF: 5, 52; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 47 (in key); Meinert, 1861: 316; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 415; Roger, 1863b PDF: 13; Emery, 1869b PDF: 10; Smith, 1871c: 1; Dours, 1873 PDF: 165; Forel, 1874 PDF: 53 (in key); André, 1874b: 185 (in key); Mayr, 1877a: 7; Emery, 1878a PDF: ix (in list); Emery, 1878: 49; Emery & Forel, 1879 PDF: 451; Mayr, 1880 PDF: 27; Saunders, 1880 PDF: 207; Provancher, 1881b PDF: 356; André, 1882c PDF: 182 (in key); Provancher, 1883 PDF: 599; White, 1884 PDF: 253; Mayr, 1886d PDF: 426; Provancher, 1887: 232 (in key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 256; Nasonov, 1889: 19; Mayr, 1889 PDF: 278; Forel, 1890b PDF: lxvii; Saunders, 1890 PDF: 203; Emery, 1891c: 16; Lameere, 1892: 63; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 196; Emery, 1893k PDF: 657; Medina, 1893 PDF: 104; Forel, 1895e PDF: 227; Ruzsky, 1896 PDF: 70; Saunders, 1896 PDF: 22; Forel, 1899b PDF: 128; Ruzsky, 1902d PDF: 11; Ruzsky, 1903c PDF: 206; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 336; Ruzsky, 1904a PDF: 288; Forel, 1904c PDF: 384; Ruzsky, 1905b: 372; Forel, 1906b PDF: 85; Forel, 1906c PDF: 189; Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 112 (in key); Forel, 1907h PDF: 19; Emery, 1909b PDF: 193; Forel, 1909c PDF: 105; Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 482; Karavaiev, 1912b PDF: 590; Krausse, 1912c PDF: 165; Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 494 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1914b PDF: 104; Stitz, 1914 PDF: 92; Ruzsky, 1915a PDF: 422; Ruzsky, 1915b: 11; Forel, 1915d: 63 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 304; Morice & Durrant, 1915 PDF: 430; Emery, 1916a PDF: 254; Ruzsky, 1916: 5; Wheeler, 1917a PDF: 545; Wheeler, 1917e PDF: 19; Escherich, 1917: 336 (in key); Menozzi, 1918 PDF: 88; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 48; Nadig, 1918 PDF: 340; Santschi, 1919e PDF: 247; Ruzsky, 1920 PDF: 79; Kulmatycki, 1922 PDF: 84; Soudek, 1922b PDF: 83; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1923b PDF: 245; Müller, 1923b PDF: 138; Finzi, 1923a PDF: 4; Vashkevich, 1924b PDF: 147; Comes, 1925 PDF: 1 (footnote); Emery, 1925d PDF: 247; Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 18 (in key); Soudek, 1925b PDF: 15; Kiseleva, 1925 PDF: 74; Ruzsky, 1925a PDF: 287; Santschi, 1925g PDF: 352; Schkaff, 1925b PDF: 276; Donisthorpe, 1926b PDF: 18; Betrem, 1926 PDF: 214; Essig, 1926 PDF: 866; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926c PDF: 96; Karavaiev, 1926e PDF: 197; Stärcke, 1926a PDF: 147 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 349; Karavaiev, 1927a PDF: 301; Karavaiev, 1927d: 285 (in key); Menozzi, 1927b PDF: 92; Lomnicki, 1928 PDF: 9; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929b PDF: 38; Finzi, 1930d PDF: 317; Karavaiev, 1930b PDF: 148; Wheeler, 1930k PDF: 80; Santschi, 1931a: 13; Karavaiev, 1931b PDF: 32; Karavaiev, 1931c PDF: 110; Karavaiev, 1931e PDF: 215; Soudek, 1931 PDF: 16; Gösswald, 1932 PDF: 44; Menozzi, 1932b PDF: 312; Santschi, 1932e PDF: 73; Santschi, 1932h PDF: 5; Teranishi, 1932 PDF: 52; Arnol'di, 1933a: 604 (in key); Santschi, 1934d PDF: 281; Grandi, 1935 PDF: 103; Zimmermann, 1935 PDF: 53; Cole, 1936a PDF: 37; Karavaiev, 1936: 227 (redescription); Ruzsky, 1936 PDF: 92; Cole, 1937b PDF: 137; Stitz, 1939: 348; Menozzi, 1939a PDF: 319; Wing, 1939 PDF: 164; Teranishi, 1940: 24; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 107 (in key); Eidmann, 1941a PDF: 26; Holgersen, 1942b PDF: 15; Holgersen, 1943c PDF: 177 (in key); Holgersen, 1944a PDF: 189; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1944 PDF: 260; Ruzsky, 1946 PDF: 69; Van Boven, 1947b PDF: 187 (in key); Röszler, 1950 PDF: 217; Donisthorpe, 1950e PDF: 1065; Creighton, 1950a PDF: 532; Smith, 1951c PDF: 863; Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 198; Consani & Zangheri, 1952 PDF: 45; Cole, 1954c PDF: 166; Yarrow, 1954a PDF: 230; Azuma, 1955 PDF: 80; Ceballos, 1956: 318; Smith, 1958c PDF: 155; Carter, 1962a PDF: 8 (in list); Baroni Urbani, 1964c PDF: 166; Dlussky, 1965a PDF: 36 (in key); Cole, 1966b PDF: 23 (in key); Beck et al., 1967: 69; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 293 (redescription); Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 58; Pisarski, 1967a PDF: 416; Smith, 1967a PDF: 371; Arnol'di, 1968b PDF: 1821; Cagniant, 1968a PDF: 145; Kutter, 1968b: 61; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969 PDF: 88; Collingwood, 1970b: 378; Cagniant, 1970c PDF: 38; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 236; Collingwood, 1971 PDF: 169; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 148 (redescription); Banert & Pisarski, 1972 PDF: 354; Francoeur, 1973 PDF: 189 (redescription); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (in key); Francoeur, 1975 PDF: 262; Hunt & Snelling, 1975 PDF: 23; Pisarski, 1975: 40; Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 180 (redescription); Aktaç, 1977 PDF: 127; Van Boven, 1977 PDF: 163; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1977b PDF: 15 (in key); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 94 (in key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 553 (in key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1978b PDF: 395; Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 120; Francoeur & Snelling, 1979 PDF: 6; Smith, 1979: 1452; Kupyanskaya, 1980 PDF: 101; Allred, 1982: 464; Kupyanskaya, 1986b PDF: 97; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 89; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a PDF: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 287 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 80; DuBois & LaBerge, 1988: 147; MacKay et al., 1988: 114; Wu, 1990 PDF: 5 (in key); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 183; Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 37; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 260; Wang, 1992: 680; Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 96; Radchenko, 1994b: 113 (in key); Wheeler et al., 1994 PDF: 306; Douwes, 1995: 98; Bolton, 1995b: 195; Poldi et al., 1995: 8; Wu & Wang, 1995a: 144; Tang et al., 1995: 105; Espadaler, 1997g PDF: 28; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 26 (in key); Gallé et al., 1998: 217; Collingwood & Heatwole, 2002 PDF: 13; Chang & He, 2002a PDF: 51 (in key); Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 79; Mackay & Mackay, 2002 PDF: 344; Karaman & Karaman, 2003 PDF: 49; Coovert, 2005 PDF: 141; Csosz & Markó, 2005 PDF: 232; Karaman & Karaman, 2005 PDF: 59; Ward, 2005 PDF: 63; Bračko, 2006 PDF: 147; Markó et al., 2006 PDF: 67; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 72, 114 (in key); Bračko, 2007 PDF: 19; Radchenko, 2007 PDF: 35; Seifert, 2007: 295; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007 PDF: 233; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008 PDF: 133; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 481; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010 PDF: 49; Boer, 2010: 30; Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 59; Karaman, 2011b PDF: 77; Legakis, 2011 PDF: 35; Seppä et al., 2011 PDF: 31; Borowiec & Salata, 2012 PDF: 494; Czechowski et al., 2012: 205; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 31; Kiran & Karaman, 2012 PDF: 11; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 74 (see note in bibliography); Bračko et al., 2014 PDF: 19; Bharti et al., 2016 PDF: 27; Lebas et al., 2016: 190; Radchenko, 2016: 294; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c 10.5281/zenodo.2199191 PDF: 45; Schär et al., 2018 10.1111/jbi.13380 PDF: 6; Seifert, 2018: 299.
Material of the unavailable name Formica nigra major referred here by Donisthorpe, 1915f: 304.
// Distribution

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Morocco
    Americas: Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico, United States
    Asia: Armenia, China, Georgia, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkey
    Europe: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formica fusca   Forel, A., 1890, Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Comptes-rendus des Seances 34, pp. 61-76: 67, (download) 67 3926
Formica fusca   Nylander, W., 1846, Adnotationes in monographiam formicarum borealium Europae., Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 2, pp. 875-944: 919-920, (download) 919-920 4277
Formica fusca   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Formica fusca   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 120, (download) 120 6175
Formica fusca   Förster, A., 1850, Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae., Aachen: Unknown Publisher: 33-35, (download) 33-35 8138
Formica fusca   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 3, (download) 3 8200
Formica fusca   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 10, (download) 10 8200
Formica fusca   Förster, A., 1850, Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae., Aachen: Unknown Publisher: 35-36, (download) 35-36 8138

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 874 times found in Unknown, 185 times found in heathlands, 135 times found in Forest, 91 times found in Anthropogenic, 77 times found in dry grassland, 43 times found in shrubs, 34 times found in Rocks (rocky-calcareous grasslands), 32 times found in Spruce-fir Forest, 25 times found in Wet grassland, 25 times found in Aspen forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 89 times under rock, 17 times log stage 4, 5 times nest under rock, 12 times under stone, 11 times log stage 3, 5 times Nido bajo piedra, 8 times ground foragers, 7 times Nest under stone, 7 times on the ground, 5 times log stage 5, 5 times under log, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 458 times Manual catch, 332 times Pitfall trap, 50 times search, 16 times hand collecting, 29 times Hand, 26 times Malaise trap, 14 times Window trap, 6 times beating, 4 times insect net, 4 times under rock; timberline, 4 times White color trap, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 4175 meters, 1924 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1866-05-05 and 2020-07-01

Type specimens: type of Formica fusca: casent0903269; type of Formica fusca var. rufipes: focol2746, focol2747; unpublished name: Formica glebaria maura: antweb1008409, antweb1008410



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