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Genus: Hypoponera   Santschi, 1938 


Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Extant: 152 species, 24 subspecies

Fossil: 1 species

Hypoponera Santschi, 1938b PDF: 79 [as subgenus of Ponera]. Type-species: Ponera abeillei, by original designation. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Hypoponera in Ponerinae, Ponerini: Donisthorpe, 1943g: 652; all subsequent authors.
Hypoponera as subgenus of Ponera: Santschi, 1938b PDF: 79.
Hypoponera as genus: Taylor, 1967a PDF: 9; all subsequent authors.
Genus Hypoponera references:
[References prior to 1967, see under PONERA.]
Taylor, 1967a PDF: 9 (Hypoponera diagnosis, discussion); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 121 (Neotropical catalogue); Alayo, 1974: 7 (Cuba species key); Kutter, 1977c: 24 (Switzerland species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 524 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Smith, 1979: 1342 (North America catalogue); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 31 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 29 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 265 (Balkans species key); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 25 (Japan species key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 176 (Turkmenistan species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 347 (Neotropical catalogue); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 69 (Bulgaria species key); Bolton, 1994: 164 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1050 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 213 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 40 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 311 (Saudi Arabia species key); Kim, Kim & Kim K, 1998: 148 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999: 187 (Australia synopsis); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 162 (synopsis); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 113 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 133 (south-western Australia species key); Bolton & Fisher, 2011 PDF: 17, 23 (Afrotropical and West Palaearctic, all species revision, keys); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 148 (Fiji species key); Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014 PDF: 57 (diagnosis, synoptic description, distribution, ecology and behavior, phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations); Bharti, Akbar, Wachkoo & Singh, 2015 PDF: 50 (India species key); Cantone, 2017 PDF: 260 (brief male diagnosis)

Taxon Page Images:



Hypoponera opacior, worker and ergatoid male. Most ant males are wasp-like and winged, adapted for dispersing away from their home nest to mate with queens from other colonies. But some Hypoponera males are inbreeding specialists. These pale creatures are worker-like in appearance and mate with their sisters in the nest. Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.

Distribution:

   Genus is native to: Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic bioregions (based on species list records).

Afrotropical Region: Africa, Angola, Ashanti, Benin, Bioko Sur, Botswana, Buikwe, Bundibugyo, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eastern Africa, Eastern Cape, Embu, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estuaire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gauteng, Ghana, Guinea, Iringa, Ivory Coast, Kabarole, Kakamega, Kenya, Kilimanjaro, KwaZulu-Natal, Kédougou, Limpopo, Lindi, Middle Africa, Morogoro, Mozambique, Mpumalanga, Mtwara, Nigeria, Ogooué-Maritime, Oromīya, Pwani, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sangha-Mbaéré, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South, South Africa, South-West, Southern Africa, Sud-Kivu, Sudan, São Tomé, Tanga, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Western, Western Africa, Western Cape, Woleu-Ntem, YeDebub Bihēroch Bihēreseboch na Hizboch, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Australia, Australia and New Zealand, Barrow Island, Central, East Sepik, Eastern Highlands, Hawke's Bay, Lord Howe Island, Madang, Makira-Ulawa, Morobe, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Oceania, Papua, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Sud, Victoria, Western Australia, Western Highlands
Indomalaya Region: Asia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Jawa Barat, Krakatau Islands, Laguna, Lampung, Malaysia, Myanmar, Perak, Philippines, Singapore, South-Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi Tengah, Sumatera Barat, Taiwan, Vietnam
Malagasy Region: Anjouan, Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Comoros, Fianarantsoa, Grande Comore, Madagascar, Mahajanga, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mohéli, Reunion, Seychelles, Toamasina, Toliara
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, California, Canada, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, North America, North Carolina, Nuevo León, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Puebla, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, United States, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin
Neotropical Region: Alajuela, Amambay, Americas, Aragua, Argentina, Atlántida, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Boaco, Bolivia, Brazil, Canindeyú, Caribbean, Cartago, Catamarca, Cayo, Central, Central America, Chiapas, Chile, Chontales, Cochabamba, Colombia, Colón, Comayagua, Concepción, Cortés, Costa Caribe Norte, Costa Caribe Sur, Costa Rica, Cuba, Darién, Dominican Republic, Duarte, Ecuador, El Progreso, Francisco Morazán, Galapagos Islands, Galápagos, Gracias a Dios, Guadeloupe, Guanacaste, Guantánamo, Guatemala, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hato Mayor, Heredia, Honduras, Huehuetenango, Itapúa, Izabal, Jalisco, Jamaica, Jinotega, La Vega, Limón, Madre de Dios, Martinique, Masaya, Matagalpa, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Minas Gerais, Misiones, Morelos, Nayarit, Nicaragua, Nueva Segovia, Oaxaca, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Petén, Presidente Hayes, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Putumayo, Retalhuleu, Rio de Janeiro, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San José, Santa Catarina, Santiago de Cuba, South America, Suchitepéquez, Suriname, São Paulo, Tamaulipas, Trinidad and Tobago, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Valparaíso, Venezuela, Veracruz, Zacapa
Oceania Region: American Samoa, Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kadavu, Koror, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Marshall Islands, Melanesia, Micronesia, Micronesia, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ngatpang, Ngchesar, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pohnpei, Polynesia, Ra, Rewa, Samoa, Serua, Tonga, Tuamasaga, Wallis and Futuna
Palearctic Region: Al Bahah, Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Ar Riyad, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belgium, Brussels Capital, Bulgaria, Canary Islands, China, Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, East Flanders, Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe, Egypt, Emilia-Romagna, England, Europe, Finland, Flemish Brabant, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hainaut, Hungary, Hyōgo, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kaliningrad, Liguria, Limburg, Lower Saxony, Luxembourg, Macaronesia, Macedonia, Madrid, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Northern Africa, Northern Europe, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, South Korea, Southern Europe, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Toscana, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Valencia, Western Asia, Western Europe, Yemen, Zurich, Śląskie

Biology:

These are small, cryptic ants, nesting in soil or wood. The workers are predators on small arthropods, but they are seldom seen foraging above ground.

Identification:

Worker: frontal lobes contiguous, not separated by a conspicuous posterior extension of the clypeus; eyes reduced or absent; hind tibia with a single spur; petiole attached near lower margin of abdominal segment 3; subpetiolar process a simple lobe, lacking sharp posteroventral teeth or angles.

Notes:

This cosmopolitan genus is most common and diverse in the tropics. Four species are known from California, of which two are apparently introduced.

References:

Onoyama (1989b); Taylor (1967a); Yamauchi et al. (1996).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 38, (download) 38 21008
Hypoponera   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2007, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae., Zootaxa 1654, pp. 21-40: 31, (download) 31 21365
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Bolton, B. & Fisher, B. L., 2011, Taxonomy of Afrotropical and West Palaearctic ants of the ponerine genus Hypoponera Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 2843, pp. 1-118: 7-12, (download) 7-12 23490
Hypoponera subgen. nov.  Santschi, F., 1938, Notes sur quelques Ponera Latr., Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 43, pp. 78-80: 79, (download) 79 3583
Hypoponera   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 30, (download) 30 6175
Hypoponera   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367


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