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Eurhopalothrix floridana is a small (~2.5 mm) brownish red ant with a triangular head, 7-segmented antennae, deep antennal scrobes, small eyes, triangular mandibles, distinctive appressed spatulate hairs and no spongiform. Although described from Florida relatively recently, there is broad speculation that it is not native to Florida or any other part of North America north of Mexico (Brown & Kempf, 1960; Deyrup, 1991; Deyrup et al., 2000; Deyrup et al., 1997). Eurhopalothrix species are predatory, and observations of one species suggest that these ants may be somewhat specialized predators of termites (Wilson & Brown, 1985.
Florida, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic.
Deyrup et al. (1997)argue that E. floridana is actually fairly common in Florida, and are skeptical that it could have remained undetected for so long if the species was native. They point out that the species is unknown from the West Indies, from where almost all of Florida’s tropical ant fauna is derived. The authors also present arguments for its status as a native species, including its cryptic nature, low tolerance for disturbed habitats and capacity for surviving in xeric conditions. The discovery of a specimen from Key West collected in 1887 makes for inconclusive evidence of native status, as Key West was a thriving commercial port during that time which received many shipments of exotic horticultural plants from Mexico.Add your content here.
Diagnosis among workers of introduced and commonly intercepted ants in the United States. Head shape triangular. Antenna 7-segmented. Antennal club 2-segmented. Antennal scapes not conspicuously short; easily extended beyond eye level. Antennal scrobe present and deeply excavated. Eyes small (less than 5 facets), situated on upper margin of scrobe. Frontal lobes do not obscure face outline between mandible and eye. Posterolateral corners of head unarmed, without spines. Mandibles triangular. Pronotal spines absent. Propodeum armed with spines. Waist 2-segmented. Spongiform not attached to any portion of waist. Color brownish red. Abundant ground pilosity characterized by small whitish appressed spatulate hairs.
Among introduced and commonly intercepted ants of the United States, Eurhopalothrix floridana is most likely to be confused with Pyramica species that have triangular mandibles, such as P. margaritae and P. membranifera. However, E. floridana is easily separated from these by its 7-segmented antennae (vs. 6-segmented in Pyramica), eye that is situated on the upper margin of the antennal scrobe (vs. lower margin in Pyramica), and lack of spongiform on either waist segment.
Among the New World species in general, E. floridana has a double mandibular tooth row, like E. gravis. Unlike E. gravis, it has a reduced number of spatulate setae. Florida populations have a single pair on the posterior vertex margin. Populations in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic may have a posteromedian rectangle of 2 pairs. The promesonotum has a full complement of 3 pairs. Eurhopalothrix vulcan from Guatemala and E. sepultura from southern Mexico are similar, but have more than 2 pairs of erect setae on the face. Eurhopalothrix apharogonia from El Salvador is similar but has a much narrower head and only 1 pair of erect setae on the mesosoma.
Brown, W.L., Jr. & Kempf, W.W. (1960) A world revision of the ant tribe Basicerotini (Hym. Formicidae). Stud. Entomol., (n.s.)3, 161-250.
Deyrup, M. (1991) Exotic ants of the Florida keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Eshbaugh, W.H. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, Bahamas, pp. 15-22.
Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. (2000) Exotic ants in Florida. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc., 126, 293-326.
Deyrup, M., Johnson, C. & Davis, L. (1997) Notes on the ant Eurhopalothrix floridana, with a description of the male (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomol. News, 108, 183-189.
Longino, J. T. (2013) A review of the Central American and Caribbean species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix Brown and Kempf, 1961 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with a key to New World species. Zootaxa, 3693, 101-151.
Wilson, E.O. & Brown, W.L., Jr. (1985) Behavior of the cryptobiotic predaceous ant Eurhopalothrix heliscata, n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Basicerotini). Insect. Soc., 31, 408-428.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 1 times found in riparian woodland, 1 times found in roadside, secondary scrub, 1 times found in Palm Hammock, 1 times found in pine forest, 1 times found in swampy riparian woodland, 1 times found in xeric coastal hammock.
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 2 times ex sifted leaf litter, 1 times in soil at base of stump, 2 times Sifted litter, 1 times litter sample.
Collected most commonly using these methods: 1 times winkler, 1 times Berlese, pine litter, 0 times direct collection, 1 times leaf litter, 1 times sample 625.
Elevations: collected from 20 - 60 meters, 28 meters average
Type specimens: Holotype: fmnhins0000047628