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Genus: Polyrhachis   Smith, 1857 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2015)

Extant: 694 species, 81 subspecies

Fossil: 1 species

Polyrhachis Smith, 1857a PDF: 58 . Type-species: Formica bihamata, by original designation. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

[Polyrhachis Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172, nomen nudum.].
Polyrhachis in Camponotinae: Forel, 1878c PDF: 367 [Camponotidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 257.
Polyrhachis in Formicinae, Camponotini: Wheeler, 1922: 701; Emery, 1925d PDF: 175; all subsequent authors except the following.
Polyrhachis as subgenus of Myrma: Wheeler, 1911c PDF: 860; Wheeler, 1911g PDF: 170. [Myrma as subgenus of Polyrhachis: Forel, 1915b PDF: 106; Forel, 1917 PDF: 251; Wheeler, 1922: 702, 993; Emery, 1925d PDF: 198; all subsequent authors (see note under Myrma).].
[Polyrachis Arnold, 1924: 741, incorrect subsequent spelling.].
Genus Polyrhachis references
Smith, 1858a PDF: 58 (diagnosis); Roger, 1863b: 6 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 422, 443 (Hemioptica, Polyrhachis catalogues); Mayr, 1865: 6 (Polyrhachis, Hemioptica diagnoses); Mayr, 1867a PDF: 40, 41 (diagnosis, species groups (as "turmae")); Mayr, 1876 PDF: 68 (Australia species key); Forel, 1878c PDF: 368 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1879 PDF: 648 (species groups); André, 1887 PDF: 286 (Afrotropical species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 257, 271 (Polyrhachis, Hemioptica catalogues); Forel, 1893e PDF: 17 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Emery, 1896j: 378 (catalogue); Emery, 1897: 579, 582 (Polyrhachis relucens & Polyrhachis guerini groups, keys); Emery, 1898a: 227 (additions to 1896a catalogue); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 383 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Santschi, 1910h: 284 (Polyrhachis rastellata group, key); Viehmeyer, 1914b PDF: 50, 54 (Polyrhachis rastellata & Polyrhachis hostilis groups, keys); Wheeler, 1922: 256, 701, 992 (diagnosis, subgenera key, Afrotropical catalogue); Arnold, 1924: 741 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Emery, 1925d PDF: 175 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 178 (Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 180 (Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 181 (Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 182 (Polyrhachis (Myrmothrinax) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 184 (Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 185 (Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 188 (Polyrhachis (Dolichorhachis) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 189 (Polyrhachis (Hedomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 190 (Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 197 (Polyrhachis (Aulacomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 198 (Polyrhachis (Myrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 206 (Polyrhachis (Pseudocyrtomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 207 (Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 209 (Hemioptica diagnosis, catalogue); Donisthorpe, 1938c: 246 (Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) review); Santschi, 1939c PDF: 13 (Polyrhachis (Pseudocyrtomyrma) species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 186, 255, 256 (Asia Irenea, Hemioptica, Polyrhachis checklists); Hung, 1962: 24 (Taiwan species key); Hung, 1967b PDF: 395 (review of subgenera); Hung, 1970 PDF: 5 (Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) species revision, key); Bolton, 1973b PDF: 289 (Afrotropical species revision, key); Bolton, 1975c PDF: 1 (Polyrhachis sexspinosa group, key); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 131 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 59 (Australia, New Caledonia checklist); Kohout, 1987 PDF: 169 (Philippines Polyrhachis sexspinosa group, key); Kohout, 1989 PDF: 515 (Australia Polyrhachis relucens group, key); Kohout, 1990: 500 (Polyrhachis viehmeyeri group, key); Kohout & Taylor, 1990 PDF: 509 (Australia checklist); Morisita, Kubota, Onoyama, et al., 1991: 45 (Japan species key); Wang C. & Wu, 1991: 596 (China species key); Dorow & Kohout, 1995 PDF: 96 (Polyrhachis (Hemioptica) species key); Bolton, 1994: 50 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 342 (catalogue); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 9 (subgenera revision, subgenera key, catalogue); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 10-11 (Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) species groups, key; Polyrhachis arachne-, Polyrhachis cryptoceroides- Polyrhachis flavoflagellata-, Polyrhachis furcata- and Polyrhachis hector species groups, keys); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 12 (Polyrhachis (Aulacomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 13 (Polyrhachis (Campomoyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 16 (Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 21 (Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 24 (Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 26 (Polyrhachis (Hedomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 28 (Polyrhachis (Hemioptica) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 30 (Polyrhachis (Myrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 42 (Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 45 (Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 61 (Polyrhachis (Myrmothrinax) synopsis); Dorow, 1995 PDF: 63 (Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) synopsis); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 159 (China species key); Shattuck, 1999: 107 (Australia synopsis); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 190 (China, Guangxi species key); Xu, 2002B: 523 (China Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) species key; Bolton, 2003 PDF: 122 (synopsis); Karmaly, 2004 PDF: 542 (India species key); Kohout, 2006C PDF: 146 (Polyrhachis cryptoceroides group, key); Kohout, 2006D PDF: 87 (Cyrtomyrma) Kohout, 2007C: 189 (Kohout, 2007B PDF: 8 (Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) Borneo, key); Kohout, 2008A PDF: 255 (Sulawesi species, keys); Kohout, 2008B PDF: 298 (Polyrhachis vestita group key); Kohout, 2008D PDF: 12 (Polyrhachis flavoflagellata group key); Kohout, 2009 PDF: 40, 44 (modifications to Kohout 2006b key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 218 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 106 (south-western Australia species key); Kohout, 2010 PDF: 169, 171, 200 (Australia subgenera key, Australia Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) species key, Australia Polyrhachis (Hirtomyrma) species key); Kohout, 2012 PDF: 38, 43, 50 (Australia Polyrhachis (Myrma), Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa) and Polyrhachis (Myrmothrinax) keys); Kohout, 2012 PDF (Polyrhachis hexacantha complex species key); Kohout, 2013 PDF (Polyrhachis xiphias species-group diagnosis, species revision, key); Kohout, 2013 PDF (Polyrhachis aculeata species-group diagnosis, review, key); Kohout, 2013 PDF (Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) revision, species key, species-group definition and diagnosis); Kohout, 2013 PDF (Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) gravis and micans species-group diagnosis, review, species key); Kohout, 2014 PDF (Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) diagnosis, review, species key).

Taxon Page Images:

When threatened, a Polyrhachis militaris worker hunkers down with her protective spines thrust upward. Kibale forest, Uganda.
Image © Alex Wild.

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-23 09:04:17 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 09:03:56 Zach Lieberman modified Images

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