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Species: Tetramorium caespitum   (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Classification:
Download Data

See Also:

Tetramorium caespitum_cf, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr01, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr02, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr03, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr04, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr06, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr07, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr10, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr11, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr21, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr22, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr23, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr24, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr25, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr26, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr27, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_spe, Tetramorium caespitum barabense, Tetramorium caespitum caespitomoravicum, Tetramorium caespitum flavidulum, Tetramorium caespitum japonicum, Tetramorium caespitum pallidum, Tetramorium caespitum typicum

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2020)

Extant: 6 valid subspecies

Formica caespitum Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 581 (w.) EUROPE. Palearctic. Secondary type information: Wagner et al., 2017 PDF: 114: Type locality. Floghult Bohuslan (Sweden), 58.97° N, 11.42° E, 100 m a.s.l., leg. C.A. Collingwood, 21.VI. 2000. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

[Misspelled as caespitosa by Emery, 1924f PDF: 276 (misspelling incorrectly attributed to Walckenaer, 1802: 166); misspelled as cespitum by Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 567.].
Latreille, 1798 PDF: 50 (q.m.); Mayr, 1855 PDF: 428 (q.m.); Wheeler, 1909g PDF: 182 (l.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1954d PDF: 445 (l.); Hauschteck, 1961 PDF: 221 (k.); Imai, 1966b PDF: 119 (k.).
Combination Manica: Jurine, 1807 PDF: 279.
Combination in Myrmica: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 131; Latreille, 1818b PDF: 149; Losana, 1834 PDF: 327.
Combination in Tetramorium: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 426.
Status as species: Linnaeus, 1761 PDF: 427; Scopoli, 1763: 313; Linnaeus, 1767 PDF: 963; Fabricius, 1775 PDF: 393; Fabricius, 1782: 491; Fabricius, 1787 PDF: 309; Gmelin, 1790 PDF: 2800; Christ, 1791 PDF: 503; Olivier, 1792: 496; Fabricius, 1793 PDF: 358; Latreille, 1798 PDF: 50; Latreille, 1802a: 251; Walckenaer, 1802: 166; Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 406; Jurine, 1807 PDF: 279; Latreille, 1809 PDF: 131; Lamarck, 1817 PDF: 98; Latreille, 1818b PDF: 149; Billberg, 1820: 104; Stephens, 1829b: 356; Losana, 1834 PDF: 327; Zetterstedt, 1838: 450; Schilling, 1839 PDF: 56; Smith, 1851 PDF: 4; Curtis, 1854: 215; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 426 (redescription); Smith, 1855b PDF: 122; Nylander, 1856b PDF: 86; Gredler, 1858 PDF: 23; Smith, 1858b PDF: 279; Smith, 1858a PDF: 117; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 61 (in key); Meinert, 1861: 330; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 740; Roger, 1863b PDF: 26; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 456; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 89; Emery, 1869b PDF: 16; Mayr, 1870b PDF: 973; Smith, 1871c: 3; Dours, 1873 PDF: 168; Forel, 1874 PDF: 72 (in key); André, 1874b: 191 (in key); Mayr, 1877a: 15; Emery, 1878a PDF: x (in list); Emery, 1878: 51; Emery & Forel, 1879: 457; Emery, 1880 PDF: 392; Mayr, 1880 PDF: 35; Saunders, 1880 PDF: 218; Emery, 1881b PDF: 529; André, 1881c PDF: 70; André, 1883a: 285 (in key); Emery, 1884: 380; White, 1884 PDF: 263; Mayr, 1886d PDF: 453; Forel, 1886e PDF: clxviii; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 261; Forel, 1889 PDF: 258; Nasonov, 1889: 29; Saunders, 1890 PDF: 204; Emery, 1891c: 2; Forel, 1892j PDF: 315; Lameere, 1892: 67; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 131; Emery, 1893e PDF: 84; Medina, 1893 PDF: 105; Forel, 1894d PDF: 17; Emery, 1895d PDF: 324; Forel, 1895e PDF: 227; Ruzsky, 1896 PDF: 72; Saunders, 1896 PDF: 33; Forel, 1900h PDF: 268; Ruzsky, 1902a PDF: 234; Ruzsky, 1902d PDF: 32; Ruzsky, 1903b PDF: 309; Forel, 1904c PDF: 371; Ruzsky, 1905b: 519; Wheeler, 1905j PDF: 386; Wheeler, 1906j PDF: 350; Forel, 1906c PDF: 189; Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 119; Forel, 1907h PDF: 15; Forel, 1909c PDF: 103; Emery, 1909f PDF: 697; Wheeler, 1909g PDF: 182; Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 498; Karavaiev, 1910 PDF: 269; Karavaiev, 1911a PDF: 50; Santschi, 1910e PDF: 650; Yano, 1910a PDF: 420; Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 567; Karavaiev, 1911b PDF: 8; Karavaiev, 1912b PDF: 583; Krausse, 1912c PDF: 164; Stitz, 1914 PDF: 75; Emery, 1914c PDF: 158; Forel, 1915d: 14 (in key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 170; Ruzsky, 1916: 5; Wheeler & Mann, 1916 PDF: 171; Wheeler, 1916r: 589; Escherich, 1917: 327; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 107; Nadig, 1918 PDF: 339; Santschi, 1919e PDF: 241; Santschi, 1921a PDF: 111; Menozzi, 1921 PDF: 30; Finzi, 1922a PDF: 120; Wheeler, 1922: 894; Menozzi, 1922c PDF: 330; Soudek, 1922b PDF: 56; Kulmatycki, 1922 PDF: 76; Santschi, 1922e PDF: 253; Finzi, 1923a PDF: 4; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1923b PDF: 253; Müller, 1923b PDF: 101; Finzi, 1924a PDF: 14; Emery, 1924b PDF: 12; Emery, 1924f PDF: 276; Lomnicki, 1925b PDF: 2; Emery, 1925a PDF: 177; Ruzsky, 1925a PDF: 288; Ruzsky, 1925b PDF: 45; Schkaff, 1925b PDF: 275; Betrem, 1926 PDF: 218; Donisthorpe, 1926a PDF: 8; Essig, 1926 PDF: 862; Wheeler, 1926a PDF: 4; Karavaiev, 1926c PDF: 167; Santschi, 1926f PDF: 287; Stärcke, 1926a PDF: 88 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927a PDF: 293; Karavaiev, 1927d: 270 (in key); Karavaiev, 1927e PDF: 335; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 190; Wheeler, 1927g PDF: 111; Kutter, 1927a PDF: 100; Lomnicki, 1928 PDF: 4; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1928b PDF: 28; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929a PDF: 29; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929b PDF: 43; Karavaiev, 1930b PDF: 147; Karavaiev, 1931a PDF: 315; Karavaiev, 1931c PDF: 107; Soudek, 1931 PDF: 10; Gösswald, 1932 PDF: 81; Arnol'di, 1933a: 597 (in key); Santschi, 1933a PDF: 21; Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 75 (in key); Karavaiev, 1934: 155 (redescription); Goetsch & Menozzi, 1935 PDF: 97; Grandi, 1935 PDF: 101; Karavaiev, 1935b PDF: 108; Röszler, 1935 PDF: 72; Zimmermann, 1935 PDF: 37; Röszler, 1936b PDF: 57; Ruzsky, 1936 PDF: 93; Wheeler, 1936g PDF: 12; Teranishi, 1940: 18; Wesson & Wesson, 1940 PDF: 98; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 87 (in key); Röszler, 1942a PDF: 50; Smith, 1943b PDF: 2 (in key); Holgersen, 1944a PDF: 170; Kratochvíl, in Kratochvíl et al., 1944 PDF: 67; Ruzsky, 1946 PDF: 70; Van Boven, 1947b PDF: 174 (in key); Forsslund, 1947 PDF: 68; Arnol'di, 1948a PDF: 211 (in list); Röszler, 1950 PDF: 223; Röszler, 1951: 88; Creighton, 1950a PDF: 291; Donisthorpe, 1950e PDF: 1062; Smith, 1951c PDF: 823; Consani & Zangheri, 1952 PDF: 42; Ceballos, 1956: 307; Bernard, 1956b PDF: 259; Brown, 1957d PDF: 1; Smith, 1958c PDF: 134; Bernard, 1959a PDF: 349; Carter, 1962a PDF: 7 (in list); Dlussky, 1962 PDF: 178; Kempf, 1962b PDF: 23; Yasumatsu, 1962 PDF: 96; Baroni Urbani, 1964a PDF: 6; Baroni Urbani, 1964b PDF: 53; Baroni Urbani, 1964c PDF: 158; Bernard, 1967a PDF: 232 (redescription); Pisarski, 1967a PDF: 402; Smith, 1967a PDF: 360; Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 70; Yarrow, 1967 PDF: 28; Baroni Urbani, 1968e PDF: 464; Kutter, 1968b: 60; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969 PDF: 74; Pisarski, 1970a PDF: 318; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1970 PDF: 86; Kempf, 1970b PDF: 25; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 135; Collingwood, 1971 PDF: 162; Banert & Pisarski, 1972 PDF: 352; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 249; Baroni Urbani, 1974a PDF: 235; Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 4 (in key); Pisarski, 1975: 25; Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 106 (redescription); Collingwood, 1976a PDF: 304; Aktaç, 1977 PDF: 122; Azuma, 1977a PDF: 116; Van Boven, 1977 PDF: 92; Kutter, 1977c: 157; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 544 (in key); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 86 (in key); Smith, 1979: 1400; Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 84; Bolton, 1979 PDF: 171; Onoyama, 1980a PDF: 197; Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 27; Dlussky, 1981b PDF: 17; Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 434; Allred, 1982: 507; Cammaerts et al., 1985: 109; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 54; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a PDF: 56; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 277 (in key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 58; Kugler, 1988: 257; Wang et al., 1988: 267; DuBois & LaBerge, 1988: 143; Dlussky et al., 1990 PDF: 200; Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 151; Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990c PDF: 420; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 381; Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 31; López, 1991a: 31; López, 1991b: 73 (redescription); Ogata, 1991b PDF: 102; Radchenko, 1992a PDF: 45 (in key); Radchenko, 1992b PDF: 50; Wang, 1992: 680; Wu & Wang, 1992c: 1309; Morisita et al., 1992: 35; López et al., 1992: 169; Collingwood, 1993b PDF: 195; Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 62; Radchenko, 1994b: 110 (in key); Wheeler et al., 1994 PDF: 304; Bolton, 1995b: 405; Douwes, 1995: 91; Mei, 1995 PDF: 765; Poldi et al., 1995: 5; Tang et al., 1995: 80; Wu & Wang, 1995a: 82; Espadaler, 1997g PDF: 31; Radchenko et al., 1998: 108; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 17 (in key); Gallé et al., 1998: 215; Collingwood & Heatwole, 2002 PDF: 9; Chang & He, 2001b PDF: 2; Zhou, 2001a PDF: 104; Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 64; Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 242; Markó & Csosz, 2002 PDF: 113; Zhang & Zheng, 2002 PDF: 219; Karaman & Karaman, 2003 PDF: 44; Csosz & Markó, 2004 PDF: 51; Coovert, 2005 PDF: 84; Karaman & Karaman, 2005 PDF: 56; MacGown & Forster, 2005 PDF: 70; Ward, 2005 PDF: 37; Bračko, 2006 PDF: 142; Petrov, 2006 PDF: 70, 100 (in key); Steiner et al., 2006 PDF: 179 (in table); Zhou, 2006 PDF: 583; Seifert, 2007: 248; Werner & Wiezik, 2007 PDF: 141; Zryanin & Zryanina, 2007 PDF: 232; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008 PDF: 143; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009 PDF: 497; Lapeva-Gjonova et al., 2010 PDF: 27; Boer, 2010: 67; Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 57; Karaman, 2011b PDF: 54; Legakis, 2011 PDF: 20; Bharti & Kumar, 2012b 10.3897/zookeys.207.3040 PDF: 31 (in key); Borowiec & Salata, 2012 PDF: 547; Czechowski et al., 2012: 175; Guénard & Dunn, 2012 PDF: 56; Ellison et al., 2012: 332; Kiran & Karaman, 2012 PDF: 26; Borowiec, 2014 PDF: 195 (see note in bibliography); Tohmé & Tohmé, 2014 PDF: 136; Lebas et al., 2016: 384; Radchenko, 2016: 244; Wagner et al., 2017 PDF: 114 (redescription); Wagner et al., 2018 10.1038/s41598-018-30890-z PDF: 4 (in list); Salata & Borowiec, 2018c 10.5281/zenodo.2199191 PDF: 50; Seifert, 2018: 227.
Senior synonym of Tetramorium caespitum himalayanum: Radchenko, 1992b: 50; Bolton, 1995b: 405; Chang & He, 2001a: 2; Zhou, 2001b: 104; Radchenko, 2016: 244.
Senior synonym of maculipes: Donisthorpe, 1915f: 171; Donisthorpe, 1927c: 190.
Material of the unavailable name Tetramorium caespitum hungarica striatis: referred here by Markó & Csösz, 2002: 113.

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Kenya
    Americas: Canada, United States
    Asia: China, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia
    Europe: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Indomalaya, Nearctic, Palearctic
  Native to (according to species list records):
    Palearctic bioregion

Distribution Notes:

Holarctic, America to Japan, North Africa to North Europe including British Isles

Biology:

Prefers grassland, especially steppe and rock steppe, also urban. Nests in soil, under rocks and in small loam hills.

Observation by J. Longino, 22 Mar 2012. This observation relates to whichever cryptic species of this complex inhabits Salt Lake City, Utah. The city has massive battles on the sidewalks. The first warm day of the season, above 15C, was on 15 Mar and I saw the first battle. Sometimes these battles seem to be a matter of grappling only, with very few casualties. But today was different. At 6:00pm I saw a mass of workers on the sidewalk. They were in a roughly circular patch over a sidewalk crack, a dense mass of grappling workers several ants deep, the circular mass around 20cm dia. A column of workers extended from the mass, about 1.5m long, through the grass at the side of the sidewalk to another crack. I returned at 7:30pm and found a triangular patch of more thinly spread workers, in an area of about 400 square cm. There was a low density of live workers, but most of the layer was dead workers, most of them dismembered. I counted the number of dead workers in a 2x2cm patch, got 60 workers, an estimated 6000 dead workers in the patch.

 

By James Trager:  This is the famous pavement ant, long known as T. caespitum. It is a very common, yet apparently undescribed component of the urban ant fauna of Europe, North America and temperate Argentina. Tetramorium sp. E also occurs in xeric, sandy or rocky natural areas. It is host to three famous parasitic ant genera, Harpagoxenus, Anergates, Teleutomyrmex; these ranging from dulotic grading into inquilinous with workers, to workerless inquilinous, to ectoparasitic(!), respectively. The diet consists of any sort of dead animal matter and seeds, with occasional honeydew-gathering. Tetramorium sp. E has been displaced in some Missouri locations in recent decades, especially in the St. Louis region and adjacent portions of Illinois, by T. tsushimae. 

Notes:

Established

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Tetramorium caespitum   Güsten, R., Schulz, A. & Sanetra, M., 2006, Redescription of Tetramorium forte Forel, 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a western Mediterranean ant species., Zootaxa 1310, pp. 1-35: 27, (download) 27 21095
Tetramorium caespitum   Forel, A., 1904, Note sur les fourmis du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences à St. Pétersbourg., Yezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk 8, pp. 368-388: 4, (download) 4 3994
Tetramorium caespitum   Bolton, B., 1979, The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region and in the New World., Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 38, pp. 129-181: 171, (download) 171 6435
Tetramorium caespitum   Güsten, R., Schulz, A. & Sanetra, M., 2006, Redescription of Tetramorium forte Forel, 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a western Mediterranean ant species., Zootaxa 1310, pp. 1-35: 28, (download) 28 21095
Tetramorium caespitum   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 84-85, (download) 84-85 6175
Tetramorium caespitum   Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 740, (download) 740 4445
Tetramorium caespitum   Emery, C., 1893, Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud aux iles Canaries. Formicides., Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 62, pp. 81-88: 84, (download) 84 3764
Tetramorium caespitum   Güsten, R., Schulz, A. & Sanetra, M., 2006, Redescription of Tetramorium forte Forel, 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a western Mediterranean ant species., Zootaxa 1310, pp. 1-35: 29, (download) 29 21095
Tetramorium caespitum   Forel, A., 1890, Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Comptes-rendus des Seances 34, pp. 61-76: 75, (download) 75 3926
Tetramorium caespitum   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Tetramorium caespitum   Emery, C., 1884, Materiali per lo studio della fauna Tunisina raccolti da G. e L. Doria. III. Rassegna delle formiche della Tunisia., Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) 21, pp. 373-386: 380, (download) 380 3743

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 246 times found in Unknown, 199 times found in heathlands, 0 times found in mixed oak forest, rocky loam soil, nest in soil, brood in nest, 87 times found in dry grassland, 86 times found in anthropogenic, 0 times found in sagebrush, cheek grass, light brown, fine, sandy clay, after 1 hour, 31 times found in dunes & inland dunes, 29 times found in Forest, 14 times found in oak forest, loam soil, nest under medium stone, brood in nest, 24 times found in Rocks (rocky-calcareous grasslands), ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 4 times in house, 3 times under stone, 3 times ground nest, 3 times grassy mound, 1 times ex grass covered mound, 2 times beach sand around marsh, 2 times under rock, 2 times soil mound, 1 times in modern high rise building 21st floor, 2 times flat tile in clay soil, 2 times city pavement, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 345 times pitfall trap, 135 times Manual catch, 0 times Vienna sausage bait, 0 times pitfall trap, 14 hour, nite, 16 times Malaise trap, 13 times search, 5 times Color trap, 5 times Hand, 4 times light trap, 2 times pitfall, 2 times Pyramid trap, ...

Elevations: collected from 26 - 2250 meters, 1148 meters average

Collect Date Range: collected between 1866-05-05 and 2019-06-23

Type specimens: cotype of Tetramorium caespitum: casent0917265; Holotype: casent0741035, casent0741036, casent0741037; neotype of Formica caespitum: casent0919632; syntype of Teramorium caespitum himalayana: casent0917058, casent0917059, casent0917060; syntype of Tetramorium caespitum fusciclava: antweb1008487; syntype of Tetramorium caespitum hammi: casent0901252; syntype of Tetramorium caespitum himalayanum: casent0913996; syntype of Tetramorium caespitum himalayanum: casent0904814; type of Tetramorium caespitum subsp. himalayanum: focol0193, focol0194, focol0195, focol0196, focol0200, focol0201, focol2021, focol2107, focol2018-1, focol2018-2, focol2019-1, focol2019-2, focol2020-1, focol2020-2



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