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Subfamily: Ponerinae

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Extant: 3 tribes, 28 genera, 1,157 species, 156 subspecies

Fossil: 12 genera, 88 species, 2 subspecies

Taxonomic history

Ponerinae as group name: Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 185 [Ponérites].
Ponerinae as family: Smith, 1851 PDF: 6 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1858a PDF: 76 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1861b PDF: 44 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1871b PDF: 320 [Poneridae]; André, 1882a}: 125 [Poneridae]; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 93 [Poneridae]; Emery, 1894h: 379 [Poneridae]; Saunders, 1896: 18 [Poneridae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 382 [Poneridae]; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 70 [Poneridae]; Bernard, 1951c: 1042 [Poneridae]; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 185 [Poneridae].
Ponerinae as tribe of Formicidae: {ref 132986}: 167 [Poneridae].
Ponerinae as subfamily of Poneridae: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 382.
Ponerinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 289, 299 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 712 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 64 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1862b PDF: 31 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1865: 11 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1868c PDF: 24 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 21 [Poneridae]; Emery, 1877b PDF: 70 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1878c PDF: 366 [Poneridae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 455 [Poneridae]; André, 1881c PDF: 64 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 [Poneridae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 13; Forel, 1893b PDF: 162; Forel, 1895b PDF: 111 [Poneridae]; Nasonov, 1889: 27 [Poneridae]; Emery, 1895l PDF: 766 [subfamily spelled Ponerini]; Emery, 1896e PDF: 176; Forel, 1899b: 2; Emery, 1901b PDF: 36; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 23; Wheeler, 1910a: 134; Emery, 1911e PDF: 2; Wheeler, 1915h PDF: 805 [Ponerides]; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 65; Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 25; Arnold, 1915: 9; Escherich, 1917: 2 [Ponerini]; Forel, 1917 PDF: 235; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 78 [Poneritae]; Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1922: 56, 632, 640; Borgmeier, 1923: 37; Karavaiev, 1934: 49; Clark, 1951 PDF: 15; Brown, 1954e PDF}: 24; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 39; Brown, 1973b PDF}: 165; all subsequent authors.
Ponerinae as poneromorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 42, 156.
Ponerinae as poneroid subfamily of Formicidae: Ouellette, Fisher, et al. 2006: 365; Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173; Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102; Ward, 2007C PDF: 555.
Tribes of Ponerinae: Platythyreini, Ponerini, Thaumatomyrmecini.
Genera (extinct) incertae sedis in Ponerinae: Afropone, Eogorgites, Eoponerites, Furcisutura, Longicapitia.
Subfamily Ponerinae references, world
Smith, 1858a PDF: 76 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1862 PDF: 712 (genera key); Mayr, 1865: 11 (Odontomachidae, Poneridae diagnoses), Mayr, 1867a PDF: 79, 81 (Odontomachidae, Poneridae diagnoses); Forel, 1878c PDF: 366 (diagnosis); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 13 (world catalogue); Emery, 1895l PDF: 766 (diagnosis); Emery, 1896e PDF: 176 (genera key); Handlirsch, 1907: 879 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1910a: 134 (diagnosis); Emery, 1911e PDF: 3 (diagnosis, tribes key); Forel, 1917 PDF: 235 (synoptic classification); Forel, 1921c: 133 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922: 56, 636 (diagnosis, tribes key); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF}: 124 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954e PDF}: 24 (phylogeny); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 475 (proventriculus morphology); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 79 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 25 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 39 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973b PDF}: 165 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 48 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981: 387 (synoptic classification); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 256 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986b: 168 (Dufour's gland); Fanfani & Dazzini Valcurone, 1986: 115 (exocrine glands synopsis); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 78 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 onward (synoptic classification, genera keys); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992 PDF: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994: 153 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1042 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 14 (catalogue); Grimaldi, Agosti & Carpenter, 1997 PDF: 20 (*Cretaceous genera); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 422 (diagnosis for wingless fossils); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 42, 156 (diagnosis, synopsis); Ouellette, Fisher, et al. 2006: 359 (phylogeny); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Ward, 2007C PDF: 555 (classification); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Schmidt, 2013 PDF: 201 (molecular phylogeny).
Regional and national faunas with keys
Mayr, 1861 PDF: 28 (Europe); Mayr, 1868c PDF: 69 (*Baltic Amber); {ref 132986}: 170 (Europe); Forel, 1874 PDF: 29 (Switzerland); André, 1882b: 227 (Europe & Algeria); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 97 (U.S.A., genera); Provancher, 1887: 238 (Canada); Nasonov, 1889: 54 (Russia); Forel, 1891c PDF: 9 (Madagascar genera); Forel, 1900d PDF: 52 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 23 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905b: 108 (Russian Empire); Wheeler, 1910a: 557 (North America genera); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 489 (Belgium); Stitz, 1914: 54 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915 PDF: 31 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915d: 6 (Switzerland); Arnold, 1915: 10 (South Africa); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 65 (Britain); Emery, 1916a PDF: 98 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916r: 580 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 79 (France & Belgium); Gallardo, 1918c PDF: 4 (Argentina); Soudek, 1922b PDF: 18 (Czechoslovakia); Stärcke, 1926}: 82 (Netherlands); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 68 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 169 (Dominican Republic); Arnol'di, 1933a: 596 (Russia); Karavaiev, 1934: 50 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937 PDF: 823 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939: 58 (Germany); Smith, 1943e PDF: 278 (U.S.A. males); Buren, 1944a PDF: 279 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947f PDF: 530 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 31 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 11 (Argentina); Brown, 1958h PDF}: 11 (New Zealand); Gregg, 1963: 280 (U.S.A., Colorado); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 80 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 10 (Polynesia); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 262 (Neotropical synoptic classification); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 323 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 3 (Britain); Boven, 1977 PDF}: 66 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 21 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 522 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 74 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 29 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Greenslade, 1979: 14 (South Australia genera); Francoeur, 1979a PDF: 30 (Canada, Québec); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 417 (Malta); Allred, 1982: 438 (U.S.A., Utah); Baroni Urbani, 1984 PDF: 75 (Neotropical genera); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 236 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 17 (U.S.A., Nevada); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 264 (Balkans); Ogata, 1987a PDF: 101 (Japan genera); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 8 (Japan); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 173 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 85 (Far Eastern Russia); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 51 (Bulgaria); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 166 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 10 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 31 (China genera); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 308 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996B: 107 (Central Europe); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 10 (Portugal); Kim, Kim & Kim K, 1998: 145 (Korea); Shattuck, 1999: 52, 179 (Australia genera synopsis); Andersen, 2000: 19 (northern Australia genera); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 22 (China, Guangxi); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002 PDF: 133 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 53 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B PDF: 436 (Japan genera, males); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 27 (U.S.A., New Mexico); CsÅ?sz, 2003: 147 (Carpathian Basin); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 256 (Neotropical genera); Radchenko, 2005B PDF}: 184 (North Korea); Coovert, 2005: 23 (U.S.A., Ohio); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2007 PDF: 27 (Malagasy genera, males); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Seifert, 2007: 108 (North and Central Europe); Bolton & Fisher, 2008C PDF: 32 (Afrotropical genera); Fernández & Arias-Penna, 2008 PDF}: 32 (Neotropical genera); Dlussky, 2009 PDF: 1071 (Eocene amber); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 101 (Taiwan genera); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 34 (south-western Australia genera); Boer, 2010: 68 (Benelux); General & Alpert, 2012 PDF: 76 (Philippines genera key).

Identification:

As newly defined by Bolton (2003), workers of this subfamily can be distinguished by the following traits: (1) outer borders of frontal lobes forming short semicircles or triangles, and having a pinched -in appearance posteriorly, (2) promesonotal suture flexible, (3) constriction present between abdominal segments 3 and 4, but segment 3 not markedly reduced in size compared to segment 4 (i.e., postpetiole absent); (4) abdominal segments 3 and 4 with tergosternal fusion; and (3) sting well developed.

Notes:

This is a diverse group of ants, largely tropical in distribution, and predatory in habits. One genus (four species) is recorded from California.

References:

Bolton (1994, 2003); Brown (1952g, 1975, 1976c, 1978c); Keller (2000); Kugler (1991); Lattke (1994); Ogata (1987a).

(-1 examples)



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