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Subfamily: Ponerinae   Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 2 tribes, 47 genera, 1,212 species, 154 subspecies

Fossil: 12 genera, 84 species

Taxonomic history

Ponerinae as group name: Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 185 [Ponérites].
Ponerinae as family: Smith, 1851 PDF: 6 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1858a PDF: 76 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1861b PDF: 44 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1871b PDF: 320 [Poneridae]; André, 1882a}: 125 [Poneridae]; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 93 [Poneridae]; Emery, 1894h: 379 [Poneridae]; Saunders, 1896: 18 [Poneridae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 382 [Poneridae]; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 70 [Poneridae]; Bernard, 1951c: 1042 [Poneridae]; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 185 [Poneridae].
Ponerinae as tribe of Formicidae: {ref 132986}: 167 [Poneridae].
Ponerinae as subfamily of Poneridae: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 382.
Ponerinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 289, 299 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 712 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 64 [Poneridae]; Smith, 1862b PDF: 31 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 11 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1868c PDF: 24 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 21 [Poneridae]; Emery, 1877b PDF: 70 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1878c PDF: 366 [Poneridae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 455 [Poneridae]; André, 1881c PDF: 64 [Poneridae]; Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 [Poneridae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 13; Forel, 1893b PDF: 162; Forel, 1895b PDF: 111 [Poneridae]; Nasonov, 1889: 27 [Poneridae]; Emery, 1895l PDF: 766 [subfamily spelled Ponerini]; Emery, 1896e PDF: 176; Forel, 1899B: 2; Emery, 1901b PDF: 36; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 23; Wheeler, 1910a: 134; Emery, 1911e PDF: 2; Wheeler, 1915h PDF: 805 [Ponerides]; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 65; Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 25; Arnold, 1915: 9; Escherich, 1917: 2 [Ponerini]; Forel, 1917 PDF: 235; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 78 [Poneritae]; Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1922: 56, 632, 640; Borgmeier, 1923: 37; Karavaiev, 1934: 49; Clark, 1951 PDF: 15; Brown, 1954e PDF}: 24; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 39; Brown, 1973b PDF}: 165; all subsequent authors.
Ponerinae as poneromorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 42, 156.
Ponerinae as poneroid subfamily of Formicidae: Ouellette, Fisher, et al. 2006: 365; Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173; Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102; Ward, 2007C PDF: 555.
Tribes of Ponerinae: Platythyreini, Ponerini.
Genera (extinct) incertae sedis in Ponerinae: Afropone, Eogorgites, Eoponerites, Furcisutura, Longicapitia.
Subfamily Ponerinae references, world
Smith, 1858aSmith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. [1858-03-27] PDF 128685: 76 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1862Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12:649-776. [1862] PDF 127190: 712 (genera key); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 11 (Odontomachidae, Poneridae diagnoses), Mayr, 1867aMayr, G. 1867a. Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 10:33-117. [1867] PDF 127217: 79, 81 (Odontomachidae, Poneridae diagnoses); Forel, 1878cForel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 15:337-392. [1878-10] PDF 125003: 366 (diagnosis); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 13 (world catalogue); Emery, 1895lEmery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8:685-778. [1895-10-18] PDF 124599: 766 (diagnosis); Emery, 1896eEmery, C. 1896e. Clef analytique des genres de la famille des Formicides, pour la détermination des neutres. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 40:172-189. [1896-05-02>] PDF 124609: 176 (genera key); Handlirsch, 1907Handlirsch, A. 1907. Die fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Lieferung 6. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 801-960. [1907-06] 125751: 879 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 134 (diagnosis); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 3 (diagnosis, tribes key); Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDF 124997: 235 (synoptic classification); Forel, 1921cForel, A. 1921c. Le monde social des fourmis comparé à celui de l'homme. Tome 1. Genèse, formes, anatomie, classification. géographie, fossiles. Genève: Librairie Kundig, xiv + 192 pp. [1921] 125267: 133 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 56, 636 (diagnosis, tribes key); Brown & Nutting, 1950Brown, W. L., Jr.; Nutting, W. L. 1950. Wing venation and the phylogeny of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 75:113-132. [1950-01-04] PDF 123254: 124 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954eBrown, W. L., Jr. 1954e. Remarks on the internal phylogeny and subfamily classification of the family Formicidae. Insectes Sociaux 1:21-31. [1954-03] PDF 123108: 24 (phylogeny); Eisner, 1957Eisner, T. 1957. A comparative morphological study of the proventriculus of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 116:439-490. [1957-07] PDF 124480: 475 (proventriculus morphology); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 79 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 25 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972aWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1972a. The subfamilies of Formicidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 74:35-45. [1972-03-28] PDF 129891: 39 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973bBrown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J.; Ayensu, E. S.; Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) 1973. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. [1973-01] PDF 123216: 165 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976b. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 7:1-108. [1976] PDF 129906: 48 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) 1981. Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. [1981] [1981] 128876: 387 (synoptic classification); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 111:255-264. [1985-07-30] PDF 129918: 256 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986bBillen, J. P. J. 1986b. Comparative morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologia Generalis 11:165-181. [1986-05-30] 122738: 168 (Dufour's gland); Fanfani & Dazzini Valcurone, 1986Fanfani, A.; Dazzini Valcurone, M. 1986. Glandole delle ponerine e ricerche sulle glandole del gastro di Megaponera foetens (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Problemi Attuali di Scienza e di Cultura 260:115-132. [1986] 124877: 115 (exocrine glands synopsis); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 1988. Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. [1987-12-22>] 124165: 78 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 9 onward (synoptic classification, genera keys); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992Baroni Urbani, C.; Bolton, B.; Ward, P. S. 1992. The internal phylogeny of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:301-329. [1992-10] PDF 122513: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 153 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1042 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 14 (catalogue); Grimaldi, Agosti & Carpenter, 1997Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208:1-43. [1977-10-23] PDF 131403: 20 (*Cretaceous genera); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003 ("2002"). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11:411-436. [2003-06] PDF 131135: 422 (diagnosis for wingless fossils); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 42, 156 (diagnosis, synopsis); Ouellette, Fisher, et al. 2006: 359 (phylogeny); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Ward, 2007CWard, P. S. 2007C. Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 1668:549-563. [2007-12-21] PDF 132572: 555 (classification); Keller, 2011Keller, R. A. 2011. A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 355:1-90. [2011-08-10] PDF 132879: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Schmidt, 2013Schmidt, C. 2013. Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Zootaxa 3647:201-250. [2013-05-09] PDF 142356: 201 (molecular phylogeny); Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014Schmidt, C. A.; Shattuck, S. O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa 3817(1):1-242. PDF 142616:4 (diagnosis, tribal and generic classification revision); Boudinot, 2015Boudinot, B. E. 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy 120:1-62. PDF 142740: 47 (male diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
Mayr, 1861Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. [1861] PDF 127189: 28 (Europe); Mayr, 1868cMayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beiträge zur Naturkunde Preussens 1:1-102. [1868] PDF 127226: 69 (*Baltic Amber); Forel, 1874Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse. Systématique, notices anatomiques et physiologiques, architecture, distribution géographique, nouvelles expériences et observations de moeurs. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften 26:1-452. [1874] PDF 124988: 29 (Switzerland); André, 1882b: 227 (Europe & Algeria); Cresson, 1887Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Suppl. Vol. 1887:1-351. [1887] PDF 123936: 97 (U.S.A., genera); Provancher, 1887Provancher, L. 1887. Fam. X. - Les Formicides. Dummy reference. Pp. 224-249 in: Provancher, L. 1887. 1885-1889. Additions et corrections au Volume II de la Faune entomologique du Canada, traitant des Hyménoptères. Québec: C. Darveau, 477 pp. 133021: 238 (Canada); Nasonov, 1889Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. [In Russian.]. Izvestiya Imperatorskago Obshchestva Lyubitelei Estestvoznaniya Antropologii i Etnografii pri Imperatorskom Moskovskom Universitete 58:1-78. [1889] 127508: 54 (Russia); Forel, 1891cForel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. 1891. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. [1891] PDF 125030: 9 (Madagascar genera); Forel, 1900dForel, A. 1900d. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VI. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 13:52-65. [1900-04-15] PDF 125099: 52 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 23 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905bRuzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. [In Russian.]. Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete 38(4-6):1-800. [1905] 128184: 108 (Russian Empire); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 557 (North America genera); Bondroit, 1910Bondroit, J. 1910 ("1909"). Les fourmis de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 53:479-500. [1910-01-05] PDF 122874: 489 (Belgium); Stitz, 1914Stitz, H. 1914. Die Ameisen (Formicidae) Mitteleuropas, insbesondere Deutschlands. Pp. 1-111 in: Schröder, C. (ed.) 1914. Die Insekten Mitteleuropas insbesondere Deutschlands. Band II, Hymenopteren, 2. Teil. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 256 pp. [1914] 129025: 54 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915Gallardo, A. 1915. Observaciones sobre algunas hormigas de la República Argentina. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 27:1-35. [1915-06-03] PDF 125411: 31 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915dForel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 12(Beilage):1-77. [1915] 125260: 6 (Switzerland); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11] 122309: 10 (South Africa); Donisthorpe, 1915fDonisthorpe, H. 1915f. British ants, their life-history and classification. Plymouth: Brendon & Son Ltd., xv + 379 pp. [1915] 124216: 65 (Britain); Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDF 124734: 98 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916rWheeler, W. M. 1916r. Formicoidea. Formicidae. Pp. 577-601 in: Viereck, H. L. 1916. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part III. The Hymenoptera, or wasp-like insects, of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin 22:1-824. [1916] 130115: 580 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87:1-174. [1918-12-24] PDF 122872: 79 (France & Belgium); Gallardo, 1918cGallardo, A. 1918c. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Ponerinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 30:1-112. [1918-12-15] PDF 125422: 4 (Argentina); Soudek, 1922bSoudek, S. 1922b. Mravenci. Soustava, zemepisné rozsírení, oekologie a urcovací klíc mravencu zijících na území Ceskoslovenské republiky. Praha: Ceskoslovenská Spolecnost Entomologická, 100 pp. [1922] PDF 128940: 18 (Czechoslovakia); Stärcke, 1926Stärcke, A. 1926. Nieuwe Nederlandsche Formiciden (benevens enkele systematische opmerkingen). Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 7:86-97. [1926-05-01] 128985: 82 (Netherlands); Donisthorpe, 1927cDonisthorpe, H. 1927c. British ants, their life history and classification (2nd edn.). London: G. Routledge and Sons, xvi + 436 pp. [1927] 124250: 68 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930Menozzi, C.; Russo, G. 1930. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna della Repubblica Dominicana (Antille). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24:148-173. PDF 127353: 169 (Dominican Republic); Arnol'di, 1933aArnol'di, K. V. 1933a. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 594-605 in: Filip'ev, I. N.; Ogloblin, D. A. (eds.) 1933. Keys to insects. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Ogiz, viii + 820 pp. [1933-12-03>] 122356: 596 (Russia); Karavaiev, 1934Karavaiev, V. 1934. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Trudy Instytutu Zoolohii ta Biolohii Vseukrains'koi Akademii Nauk. Seriya 1. Pratsi z Systematyky ta Faunistyky 1934:1-164. [1934-09-27>] 126234: 50 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937Smith, M. R. 1937 ("1936"). The ants of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 20:819-875. [1937-01] PDF 128776: 823 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. [1939] 129033: 58 (Germany); Smith, 1943eSmith, M. R. 1943e. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 30:273-321. [1943-10-22] PDF 128795: 278 (U.S.A. males); Buren, 1944aBuren, W. F. 1944a. A list of Iowa ants. Iowa State College Journal of Science 18:277-312. [1944-04] PDF 123329: 279 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947fSmith, M. R. 1947f. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the United States ants, based on the workers. American Midland Naturalist 37:521-647. [1947-07-27] PDF 128808: 530 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 31 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956aKusnezov, N. 1956a. Claves para la identificación de las hormigas de la fauna argentina. Idia 104-105:1-56. [1956-09] PDF 126654: 11 (Argentina); Brown, 1958hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958h. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1:1-50. [1958-07-30] PDF 123147: 11 (New Zealand); Gregg, 1963Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado, with reference to their ecology, taxonomy, and geographic distribution. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp. [1963] 125667: 280 (U.S.A., Colorado); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 80 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967bWilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1-109. [1967-08-15] PDF 130430: 10 (Polynesia); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 262 (Neotropical synoptic classification); Bolton, 1973aBolton, B. 1973a. The ant genera of West Africa: a synonymic synopsis with keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 27:317-368. [1973-01-18] PDF 122835: 323 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975Bolton, B.; Collingwood, C. A. 1975. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 6(3(c)):1-34. [1975-06] 122862: 3 (Britain); Boven, 1977Boven, J. K. A. 1977. De mierenfauna van België (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 67:1-191. [1977-06] PDF 122960: 66 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977cKutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helvetica. Fauna 6:1-298. [1977] 126740: 21 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) 1978. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. [In Russian.]. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. [1978-11-02>] 122371: 522 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Revista Española de Entomología 52:65-95. [1978-05-10] PDF 123763: 74 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8:1-174. [1979] PDF 123764: 29 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Greenslade, 1979Greenslade, P. J. M. 1979. A guide to ants of South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Museum (Special Educational Bulletin Series), 44 pp. [1979] 125641: 14 (South Australia genera); Francoeur, 1979aFrancoeur, A. 1979a. Les fourmis du Québec. 1. Introduction. 2. La famille des Formicidae. 3. La sous-famille des Ponerinae. Annales de la Société Entomologique du Québec 24:12-47. [1979-01] PDF 125338: 30 (Canada, Québec); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981Schembri, S. P.; Collingwood, C. A. 1981. A revision of the myrmecofauna of the Maltese Islands (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" 83:417-442. [1981-09-01] PDF 128469: 417 (Malta); Allred, 1982Allred, D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511. [1982-12-31] 122181: 438 (U.S.A., Utah); Baroni Urbani, 1984Baroni Urbani, C. 1984 ("1983"). Clave para la determinación de los géneros de hormigas neotropicales. Graellsia 39:73-82. [1984-02-10] PDF 122506: 75 (Neotropical genera); Collingwood, 1985Collingwood, C. A. 1985. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae of Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 7:230-302. [1985] PDF 123767: 236 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986gWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. [1986] PDF 129925: 17 (U.S.A., Nevada); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987bAgosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60:261-293. [1987-12-15] PDF 122149: 264 (Balkans); Ogata, 1987aOgata, K. 1987a. A generic synopsis of the poneroid complex of the family Formicidae in Japan (Hymenoptera). Part 1. Subfamilies Ponerinae and Cerapachyinae. Esakia 25:97-132. [1987-01-31] PDF 127579: 101 (Japan genera); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 8 (Japan); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. [In Russian.]. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. PDF 124151: 173 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990aKupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. [In Russian.]. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. [1990-09-13>] 126604: 85 (Far Eastern Russia); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 51 (Bulgaria); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993Jaffe, K. 1993. El mundo de las hormigas. Baruta, Venezuela: Equinoccio (Ediciones de la Universidad Simón Bolívar), 188 pp. [1993-07] 126108: 166 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). [In Russian.]. Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. [1994-06-20>] PDF 122300: 10 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 31 (China genera); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDF 130931: 308 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996BSeifert, B. 1996B. Ameisen beobachten, bestimmen. Augsburg: Naturbuch Verlag, 351 pp. [1996-12-31] 132274: 107 (Central Europe); Collingwood & Prince, 1998Collingwood, C.; Prince, A. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5:1-49. [1998-07] 130938: 10 (Portugal); Kim, Kim & Kim K, 1998Kim, B.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim K 1998. Systematic study of Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 28:145-154. [1998-06] 131603: 145 (Korea); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 52, 179 (Australia genera synopsis); Andersen, 2000Andersen, A. N. 2000. The ants of northern Australia. A guide to the monsoonal fauna. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, v + 106 pp. 130660: 19 (northern Australia genera); Zhou, 2001AZhou, S. 2001A. Ants of Guangxi. [In Chinese.]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press, 255 pp. [2001-09-01] PDF 132709: 22 (China, Guangxi); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002Czechowski, W.; Radchenko, A.; Czechowska, W. 2002. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Poland. Warsaw: Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 200 pp. PDF 130994: 133 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002Aktaç, N.; Radchenko, A. G. 2002. Türkiye karincalarinin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) altfamilya ve cins tani anahtarlari. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 26:51-61. [2002-03] 130646: 53 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002BYoshimura, M.; Onoyama, K. 2002B. Male-based keys to the subfamilies and genera of Japanese ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science 5:421-443. [2002-12-25] PDF 132694: 436 (Japan genera, males); Mackay & MacKay, 2002Mackay, W.; MacKay, E. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp. [2002-12] PDF 131795: 27 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Cs?sz, 2003Cs?sz, S. 2003. A key to the Ponerinae species of the Carpathian Basin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 95:147-160. [2003-10-30] 130955: 147 (Carpathian Basin); Palacio & Fernández, in Radchenko, 2005BRadchenko, A. 2005B. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55:127-221. [2005-06-30] PDF 132056: 184 (North Korea); Coovert, 2005: 23 (U.S.A., Ohio); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2007Yoshimura, M.; Fisher, B. L. 2007. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa 1654:21-40. [2007-12-05] PDF 132688: 27 (Malagasy genera, males); Clouse, 2007BClouse, R. M. 2007B. The ants of Micronesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Micronesica 39:171-295. [2007-07] 130924: 190 (Micronesia); Seifert, 2007Seifert, B. 2007. Die Ameisen Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Tauer: lutra Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, 368 pp. [2007-04] 132271: 108 (North and Central Europe); Bolton & Fisher, 2008CBolton, B.; Fisher, B. L. 2008C. Afrotropical ants of the ponerine genera Centromyrmex Mayr, Promyopias Santschi gen. rev. and Feroponera gen. n., with a revised key to genera of African Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 1929:1-37. [2008-11-10] PDF 130799: 32 (Afrotropical genera); Lyu, 2008Lyu, D. 2008. Taxonomic study on the poneromorph subfamilies group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 47(4):315-331. PDF 142798: 315 (Korean genera); Fernández & Arias-Penna, 2008Fernández, F.; Arias-Penna, T. M. 2008. Las hormigas cazadoras en la región Neotropical. Pp. 3-39 in: Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] [2008-12-26] PDF 131263: 32 (Neotropical genera); Dlussky, 2009Dlussky, G. M. 2009. 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Distribution:


African Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Macaronesia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, Barrow Island, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Balearic Islands, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Europa Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, California, Canada, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Pacific Islands Region: American Samoa, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia, Kiribati, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Samoa, Singapore, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands
South East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Christmas Island, India, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna

Identification:

As newly defined by Bolton (2003), workers of this subfamily can be distinguished by the following traits: (1) outer borders of frontal lobes forming short semicircles or triangles, and having a pinched -in appearance posteriorly, (2) promesonotal suture flexible, (3) constriction present between abdominal segments 3 and 4, but segment 3 not markedly reduced in size compared to segment 4 (i.e., postpetiole absent); (4) abdominal segments 3 and 4 with tergosternal fusion; and (3) sting well developed.

Notes:

This is a diverse group of ants, largely tropical in distribution, and predatory in habits. One genus (four species) is recorded from California.

References:

Bolton (1994, 2003); Brown (1952g, 1975, 1976c, 1978c); Keller (2000); Kugler (1991); Lattke (1994); Ogata (1987a).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Ponerinae   Donisthorpe, H. S. J. K., 1938, Five new species of ant, chiefly from New Guinea., Annals and Magazine of Natural History 1, pp. 140-148: 140, (download) 140 5782
Ponerinae   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2007, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae., Zootaxa 1654, pp. 21-40: 28-29, (download) 28-29 21365
Ponerinae   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2007, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae., Zootaxa 1654, pp. 21-40: 30, (download) 30 21365
Ponerinae   Clark, J., 1930, New Formicidae, with notes on some little-known species., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 43, pp. 2-25: 6-7, (download) 6-7 6104
Ectatomma (Acanthoponera) imbellis var. hilare   Wheeler, W. M., 1923, Ants of the genera Myopias and Acanthoponera., Psyche 30, pp. 175-192: 180-181, (download) 180-181 3374
Ponerinae   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 56-57, (download) 56-57 20597

(-1 examples)



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