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Species: Tetramorium (simillimum) simillimum   (Smith, 1851) 

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See Also:

Tetramorium simillimum_cf, Tetramorium simillimum denticulatum, Tetramorium simillimum insulare, Tetramorium simillimum isis, Tetramorium simillimum laevinode, Tetramorium simillimum madecassum, Tetramorium simillimum opacior

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Myrmica simillima Smith, 1851 PDF: 118 (w.) GREAT BRITAIN. Palearctic. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Meinert, 1861: 331 (gynandromorph); André, 1883a: 289 (q.m.); Imai, Baroni Urbani, et al. 1984: 8 (k.).
Combination in Tetramorium: Mayr, 1861 PDF: 61.
Senior synonym of Tetramorium pygmaeum: Forel, 1916 PDF: 421; of Tetramorium brevispinosa: Borgmeier, 1937b PDF: 241; of Tetramorium insulare: Yarrow, 1967 PDF: 28; of Tetramorium denticulatum, Tetramorium opacior, Tetramorium parallela: Bolton, 1977 PDF: 131; of Tetramorium bantouana, Tetramorium exoleta and material of the unavailable name Tetramorium breve referred here: Bolton, 1980: 320.
See also: Emery, 1909f: 696.


Reference for Kenya if not type: Santschi 1914b


Natural History:

Tetramorium simillimum is an uncommon tramp species in Costa Rica. I have only collected it once in Costa Rica, on a picnic table at the headquarters of Santa Rosa National Park.


Introduced species. CA record: Bolton (1979: 171).


Caste of types: (w)

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Forel, A., 1893:
(No. 34 a et 34 b). [[ worker ]] [[ queen ]]. Cosmopolite dans les tropiques.
(34 a). Golden Grove House (leeward); open place, 300 ft.; under a stone close to the house. Oct. 30 th.
(34 b). Another nest (or part of the same formicarium); same locality and date. A few feet distant from 84 a, under a stone.

Forel, A., 1895:
[[ worker ]]. - L. 1,9 mill. - Tete aussi large que longue (bien plus longue que large chez les types de Roger). Les scapes atteignent presque le bord posterieur de la tete. Epines metanotales un peu plus longues que larges; plutot plus longues que les metasternales. Petiole du premier n oe ud du pedicule bien plus grele que chez le type, aussi long que le n oe ud lui-meme. Entierement d'un jaunatre brunatre sale, avec une bande brune indistincte sur l'abdomen. Du reste comme le type.
Imerina (M. Sikora).

Wheeler, W. M., 1922:
A single worker from Stanleyville (Lang and Chapin). This is a common tropicopolitan ant, now widely distributed by commerce.

Ward, P. S., 2005:
I [introduced species]

Wild, A. L., 2007:
Literature records: Concepción (Fowler 1981). [* = species not native to Paraguay]

Bernard, F., 1953:
Petite Fourmi tropicopolite, souvent introduite dans les serres d'Europe. Quelques exemplaires du ravin I et de la crete de Nion, a 1.300 m., sont jaunes et un peu plus greles que le type.

Bolton, B., 1979:
(Figs 38, 41)
Myrmica simillima F. Smith , 1851: 118. Syntype workers, Great Britain: England, Dorset (types lost). Tetramorium simillimum (F. Smith) ; Mayr, 1861: 15, 61. [For a statement of current synonymy see Bolton, 1977: 131 with the exception of caldarium (Roger) , for which see above.]
Worker. TL 2.1 - 2.5, HL 0.54 - 0.60, HW 0.48 - 0.54, CI 88 - 93, SL 0.36 - 0.42, SI 74 - 80, PW 0.34 - 0.40, AL 0.58 - 0.68 (45 measured).
Mandibles feebly striate or weakly shagreened, never strongly rugulose, rarely with sculpture almost effaced. Anterior clypeal margin convex and entire, without a median notch or impression. Frontal carinae strongly developed, weakly sinuate, extending back almost to the occiput and outcurved posteriorly, fading out around the posterior borders of the broad but shallow antennal scrobes. Eyes moderate in size, their maximum diameter 0.22 - 0.26 x HW. Occiptial margin of head in full-face view broadly but shallowly concave, the sides of the head broadened behind the eyes, weakly convex, merging into the evenly rounded occipital corners. Propodeum armed with a pair of short, triangular teeth which are usually shorter than the metapleural lobes, the latter broad and roughly triangular in shape. Petiole in profile as in Fig. 38, the node in dorsal view always slightly broader than long, somewhat variable in shape but always broadening posteriorly before narrowing to the postpetiolar junction. Dorsum of head finely longitudinally rugulose, the spaces between the rugulae packed with a fine, dense conspicuous reticulate-punctulation or granulation. Dorsal alitrunk finely, often faintly longitudinally rugulose, the spaces between rugulae densely punctulate. Dorsal petiole and postpetiole similarly but less strongly sculptured, the sculpture sometimes reduced but never completely absent. Gaster unsculptured or with faint granulation on base of first tergite. All dorsal surfaces of head and body with scattered short hairs, generally longer on the gaster then elsewhere. Hairs on alitrunk conspicuous, short, stout and blunt.
Antennal scapes and tibiae only with very short, fine pubescence which is appressed. Colour yellow to yellow brown, often with the gaster darker than the head and alitrunk but some populations uniformly coloured.
Material examined (New World)
U. S. A.: Florida, Orlando (O. C. McBride); Florida, Bradenton (G. D. Reynolds); Florida, Ft Ogden (D. E. Read); Florida, Ft Myers (W. M. Barrows); California, San Francisco (no further data). Mexico: Cordoba {Mann & Skewes); Cordoba (Silvestri); Chiapes, Ocosingo (R. L. Dressier). Guatemala: Los Amatea (Kellerman). Bahamas: Andros I. (W. M. Wheeler), Egg I. (Wickham). Virgin Is.: St Croix (H. Morrison). Cuba: Cristo (W. M. Mann); Soledad, Cienfuegos (N. A. Weber); Soledad, Atkins Gdns (E. O. Wilson). Jamaica: series without data; Balaclava (W. M. Wheeler). Haiti: Mts N. of Jacmel (W. M. Mann); Mannerville (W. M. Mann); Grande Riviere (W. M. Mann); Diquini (W. M. Mann). Trinidad: Curepe (J. Noyes); series ex Trinidad on palms, intercepted Philadelphia (W. Chapman). Venezuela: Caracas (N. Ferrine); Orinoco Delta (N. A. Weber); P. Anduz, Moitaco. Brazil: Bahia (H. L. Sumford); S. P., San Sebastiao (B. Fledderman) Manaus (Mann & Baker). Peru: series ex Peru on orchids, intercepted Miami, Florida.

Santschi, F., 1914:
List. Brit. Mus. Acul., p. 118 (1851), [[worker]] ( Myrmica simillima ). - Roger, Berlin, ent. Zeitschr., I, p. 12 (1857), [[queen]], [[male]], [[worker]] ( Tetrogmus caldorius).
Afrique orientale anglaise: Shimoni, dans la region cotiere (st. n° 9, nov. 1911), 1 [[worker]].
Cosmopolite sous les tropiques; en Europe dans les serres chaudes. - Plusieurs varietes et races habitent l'Afrique. L'exemplaire de Shimoni est un peu plus petit que lc type (long. 1,5 mill.), et fait passage a la var. madecassa Forel.

Forel, A., 1907:
[[ worker ]]. He Darros, Amirantes. Espece cosmopolite, transportee par les vaisseaux.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 47 times found in tropical dry forest, 37 times found in urban/garden, 23 times found in coastal scrub, 16 times found in rainforest, 6 times found in port of entry/city, 22 times found in forest, 18 times found in mixed forest, 15 times found in urban garden, 7 times found in tropical dry forest on Tsingy, 10 times found in spiny forest/thicket, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 30 times MW 50 sample transect, 5m, 15 times aspirating; PB bait, 10 times MW 25 sample transect, 5m, 7 times 9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 4 times hand collection, 2 times 2 Maxi Winks, 2 times aspirating, 1 times 9 maxi winks, 6 times pitfall trap, PF 50 traps, 11 cm dbh with water, soap, formalin, nonlinear placement, 5 times search, 7 times aspirating; PB & maple syrup bait, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 1650 meters, 177 meters average

Type specimens: Holotype: casent0249091, casent0249092, casent0249093; not part of type series: casent0915079; syntype of Tetramorium pusillum bantouana: casent0915080; syntype of Tetramorium pusillum bantuala breve: casent0915081; syntype of Tetramorium pygmaeum: casent0904832; syntype of Tetramorium simillimum denticulatum: casent0909115; syntype of Wasmannia auropunctata brevispinosa: casent0915082

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