Reference for Kenya if not type: Kakamega Forest
Caste of types: (w)
Bolton, B., 2007:
Tapinoma pallipes Smith , F. 1876: 447. Syntype workers, ROGRIGUEZ I. (BMNH) [examined]. [Misspelled as pallidipes by Dalla Torre, 1893: 166.]
Technomyrmex albipes subsp. foreli Emery , 1893: 249. Syntype workers, MADAGASCAR: Tamatave (MHNG) [examined], Syn.n.
Technomyrmex atrichosus Viehmeyer , 1922: 214. Syntype workers, KENYA: Shirati, v. 1909 (Katona) (ZMHB) [examined]. Syn. n. (See note.)
Technomyrmex foreli var. affinis Santschi, 1930a: 71. [First available use of Technomyrmex albipes st. foreli var. affinis Santschi, 1914: 119 (unavailable name).] Syntype workers, KENYA ("Afr. Or. Angl."): Naivasha, Dec. 1911, 1900 m, st. 14, no. 694/14 (Alluaud & Jeannel) (MHNG) [examined]. Syn. n.
Technomyrmex brevicornis Santschi, 1930a: 71, figs. 34 - 36. Syntype workers, ANGOLA: S.P. de Loanda, 24.ii.1913 (Silvestri) (syntypes are labeled Technomyrmex foreli brevicornis ) (NHMB) [examined]. Syn. n.
Technomyrmex albipes subsp. truncicolus Weber , 1943: 380. Syntype workers, SUDAN: Equatoria , Imatong Mts, 6200 ft, 24.vii. - 5.viii.1939, No. 1382 (N.A. Weber) (MCZC) [examined] Syn. n.
Technomyrmex primroseae Donisthorpe , 1949: 273. Holotype and paratype workers, MAURITIUS: Le Pouce Mt, 2.xi.l948, no.126 (R. Mamet) (BMNH) [examined]. Syn. n.
The two syntype workers of atrichosus are extremely abraded specimens of pallipes on which very few of the diagnostic setae remain. However, nineteen more workers from the same series, not considered in the original description, are preserved in HNHM. All of these are also extremely abraded, but summing all the setae that remain on these specimens gives the characteristic setal array of pallipes .
WORKER. Measurements: TL 2.3 - 2.8, HL 0.52 - 0.68, HW 0.46 - 0.64, SL 0.45 - 0.64, PW 0.33 - 0.37, WL 0.65 - 0.72 (30 measured). Indices: CI 84 - 94, SI 92 - 106, OI 28 - 33, EPI 55 - 71, DTI 120 - 128.
Frontal carina with 2 setae: in profile the anterior above the torulus, the posterior at the level of the anterior portion of the eye; both of these shorter than the maximum diameter of the eye. No seta present at level of posterior margin of eye. Posterior to this the dorsum with 2 pairs of inconspicuous, extremely short stubbly setae, both of which are less than half the length of the seta above the eye: anterior pair about midway between level of posterior margin of eye and posterior margin of head, posterior pair very close to or at the posterior margin (easily abraded). In full-face view median portion of anterior clypeal margin extremely shallowly concave or feebly indented; posterior margin of head at most very slightly concave or impressed medially, sometimes almost transverse. Eyes relatively large and located in front of midlength, EPI <80; in full-face view outer margins of eyes touch, or more usually break, the outline of the sides. Number of setal pairs on dorsal mesosoma: pronotum 1 - 3, shorter than maximum diameter of eye; mesonotum 1, about half the length of the pronotal setae and located at the point where the slope of the mesonotal dorsum changes; propodeal dorsum 0; lateral margins of propodeal declivity 2 (rarely 3), above the level of the spiracle. With mesosoma in profile the posterior one - third of the mesonotum is more steeply sloped than the anterior two - thirds. Metanotal groove distinct but only shallowly impressed. Dorsum of propodeum short and more or less flat, meeting the steeply sloped declivity in a blunted angle. Gastral tergites 1 - 4 each with numerous setae, distributed everywhere on the sclerites; usually all are distinctly shorter than the maximum diameter of the eye. Head, mesosoma and gaster uniformly light brown to uniformly black, with all shades attested between these extremes; sometimes the gaster is slightly darker than the mesosoma. Legs lighter than head and body, varying from pale yellow to dull brownish yellow. Tibiae and tarsi are always the same colour, the former never considerably darker than the latter; femora may be somewhat darker, in whole or in part, than the tibiae.
The arrangement of setae and their relative lengths is characteristic of this small but relatively large - eyed species. A similar arrangement is seen only in the closely related vapidus of Kenya and Tanzania, but that species is larger, brightly coloured, and has more posteriorly located eyes.
A series of intercastes is present between worker and queen in which 0, 1 or 3 ocelli are developed and the mesosoma gradually increases in size and complexity. The mesonotum gradually differentiates into mesoscutum and mesoscutellum and in larger individuals a small prominent metanotum is also developed. Ergatoid males are produced as well as alate males and queens.
T. pallipes is a common and very widely distributed species in the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions, and is present as an introduction on the Atlantic islands off Africa. It has also been recorded from hothouses, and once from a dwelling, in the West Palaearctic. Nest sites appear opportunistic, being constructed in the ground under stones, in or under rotten wood, under the bark of living trees, in rotten parts of standing trees and in hollow stems and twigs of plants. The species efficiently colonises areas disturbed by human activities and may be prevalent in plantations of tree and shrub crops. In Madagascar it is common in parks and gardens and in South Africa it is known to invade houses, where it may nest in bizarre locations such as electricity transformers or light fixtures. In other countries it has been recorded as entering houses in search of sugary food or water. Foraging is carried out both terrestrially and arboreally. When foraging on shrubs and trees pallipes tends a wide range of homopterous insects. The species called albipes in Samways, Nell & Prins (1982V associated with outbreaks of red scale on citrus in South Africa, is most probably pallipes, as also is the species referred to as albipes by Prins, Robertson & Prins (1990) in their synopsis of pest ants of South Africa.
Ghana: Tafo (C. Campbell); Legon (D. Leston); Abodum (D. Leston); Bunso (R. Belshaw); Mankrang For. Res., nr Akomodan (R. Belshaw). Cameroun: Mkoemvon (D. Jackson). Gabon: Prov. Ogooue-Maritime, Res. Monts Doudou (B.L. Fisher); Prov. Woleu-Ntem, Minvoul (B.L. Fisher). Central African Republic: P.N. Dzanga-Ndoki (B.L. Fisher); P.N. Dzanga-Ndoki (S. van Noort); Res. Dzanga-Sangha (S. van Noort). Democratic Republic of Congo: Luebo, Macaco (H. Schouteden). Angola: Loanda (Silvestri); Sangave (Monard). Ethiopia: Ilubador Region, Buno Bedele, nr Bedele (Sforzi & Bartolozzi). Somalia: Kisimaio (Bartolozzi); Boramo (E.F. Peck). Sudan: Equatoria, Imatong Mts (N.A. Weber); Kouloubu (Andrieu). Kenya: Narok, Loita Hills (Mahnert & Perret); Naivasha (Alluaud & Jeannel); Laikipia Distr., Mpala Res. Centre (R.R. Snelling); nr Mpala Res. Centre, Ewaso Ng'iro Riv. (R.R. Snelling); Mpala Res. Centre (S. Kamande); Mpala Ranch, Hippo Pool (R.R. Snelling); Nyeri Distr., Mweiga (C.C. Hogue); Shirati (Katona); Kiambu (R.H. Le Pelley). Uganda: Bulucbebe (H. Hargreaves); Bushenyi Distr., Kalinzu Forest (S. Yamane). Tanzania: Maramba (A.M. Varela); Zanzibar, Selem (M.J. Way); Mkomazi Game Res., Kisima Mt. (H.G. Robertson); Mkomazi Game Res., Dindera Dam (A. Russell - Smith); Mkomazi Game Res., Ibaya Camp (S. van Noort); Chambezi (Lohr); Kanga (Lohr). Zambia: Lusaka (R.A. Beaver). Mozambique: Vila Manica (Ross & Leech); Zimbabwe: Bulawayo (G. Arnold); Bulawayo, Bunthorne Mine (G. Arnold); Matopos (G. Arnold); Chirinda For. (G. Arnold); Springvale (G. Arnold); Harare, Highlands (M. Cumming); Harare (A. Watsham); Zambesi Valley, 7km SE Angwa Bridge (J. Weyrich); Kanyati Wildlife Area (A.J. Gardiner); Cecil Kop, nr Umtali (W.L.Brown). Botswana: Serowe (P. Forchhammer); Okavango Delta, Shorobe (A. Russell - Smith); Maxwee (A. Russell - Smith). South Africa: Cape Prov., Suurberg (A.C. Wild); Koeberg (H.G. Robertson); Fort Beaufort (J.C Faure); Pretoria (J.C. Faure); Salique (J.C. Faure); CP., Fish Hoek (T. Ferreira); Kenilworth (M. Raven); C.P., Tsitsikamma N.P. (R.B. Kimsey); Grahamstown Bot. Gadns (C. Zachariades); Potberg (H.G. Robertson); Fernkloof Nat. Res. (H.G. Robertson); Cape of Good Hope Nat. Res. (H.G. Robertson); Cape of Good Hope Nat. Res. (M.H. Troskie); Cape of Good Hope Nat. Res. (F. Parker); Cape Pen. N.P. (F. Parker); W Cape, Le Roux's Farm (L.L. Chaane); S Cape, Wisboomskraal (W. Breytenbach); De Hoop Nat. Res. (T. Smulian); Wuppertal, Cedarberg (H.G. Robertson); W Cape, Rondevlei Nat. Res. (S. Lake); Jansenville (H. Adie); Kromrivier (H.G. Robertson); Prince Albert (Dean); Mosslands Farm (A. Bownes); Grootvadersbusch (D. Larsen); Cape Town (Philby); Kraaifontein (A.J. Prins); Natal, Illovo (P. Atkinson); Natal, Mt Edgecombe (G. Leslie); Natal, Pinetown (M. Samways); Natal, Umtamvuna Riv., Port Edward (C. Zachariades); Port Edward (C.H. Stirton); N of Richard's Bay (de Kock & Majer); Pietermaritzburg (F. Carliell); Natal, Vernon Crookes Nat. Res. (P. Caldwell); Durban, Virginia Bush (P. Caldwell); Durban, Ridgeview (P. Caldwell); KwaZulu-Natal, Karkloof (S.S. Lu); Wahroonga Farm (S.S. Lu); Mapelane Game Res. (H.G. Robertson); Jozini (H.G. Robertson); Kdumu Game Res. (H.G. Robertson); Orange Free State, Tussen Die Riviere (H.G. Robertson); Transvaal, Giyani, S. Letaba Riv. (H.G. Robertson); Tvl., Nelspruit (M. Samways); Tvl., Nyalele Vailey (Vernay - Lang); Tvl., Klipriviersberg (H.G. Robertson); Kruger Nat. Pk (A.J. Prins); Tvl., Weltevreden Farm (H.G. Robertson); Tvl, Blyderivierspoort (R.B. Kimsey); NW Prov., Pilansberg Nat. Pk (C.L. Parr). Vryburg (E. Simon); Bloemfontein (E. Simon). Swaziland: Forbes Reef (P.S. Ward). Lesotho: Maqalito (R. Tiali); Molomo (R. Tiali). Namibia: Namib Naukluft Pk, Gobabeb (H.G. Robertson); Waterberg Rest Camp (H.G. Robertson). Madagascar: Prov. Antsiranana, N Joffreville (Schlinger et al); Antsiranana, P.N. Montagne d'Ambre (R. Harin'Hala); P.N. Montagne d'Ambre (Schlinger et al); Antsiranana, Ambondrobe, Vohemar (B.L. Fisher); Antsiranana, Res. Analamerana, Anivorano-Nord (B.L. Fisher); Prov. Fianarantsoa, P.N. Isalo, Ambovo Springs (B.L. Fisher); nr Isalo P.N. (R. Harin'Hala); Fianarantsoa, SSW Ambositra, Ankazomivady (B.L. Fisher); Fianarantsoa, P.N. Andringitra, For. Ravaro (S. Razafimandimby); Fianarantsoa, For. Analalava, W. Ranohira (Fisher et al); Fianarantsoa, P.N. Ranomafana (R. Harin'Hala); Fianaranrsoa, For. Ambalagoavy Nord (R. Harin'Hala); Prov. Mahajanga, For. Ambohimanga, Mampikony ( Fisher et al); Prov. Toamasina, Andrasibe P.N. (R. Harin'Hala); Ankazomivady, SSW Ambositra (H.G. Robertson); Toamasina, W Morarano - Chrome (A. Pauly); Prov. Toliara, Res. Cap. Sainte Marie, W. Marovato (B.L. Fisher); Toliara, Ranobe (no collector's name); Toliara, P.N. Andohahela, ENE Tsimelahy (Fisher et al.); P.N. Andohahela, Manantalinjo (Fisher et al.); Toliara, For. Mite, WNW Tongobory (Fisher at al); Toliara, Res. Berenty, For. Bealoka, NNW Ambosary (Fisher et al); Toliara, P.N. Zombitse, E Sakaraha (Fisher et at); Toliara, P.N. Tsimanampetsotsa, Bemanateza (Fisher et al.); Toliara, Res Berenty, For. Malaza, NW Amboasary (Fisher et al.); Toliara, Mahafaly, nr Eloeste (V. & B. Roth); Toliara, Sept Lacs (M.G.F.); Toliara, Res. Ambohijanahary, NW Ambaravaranala (Fisher et al.); Nosi-Be (Voeltzkow); Tamatave (no collector's name); Antananarivo (P.S.Ward); 3 km. W Ranomafana, nr Ifanadiana (P.S. Ward); Res. Ankarana, 7 km. SE Matsaborimanga (P.S. Ward). Rodriguez I. (no collector's name). Mauritius: Le Pouce Mt. (R. Mamet); Corps de Garde Mt. (R. Mamet); Round I. (C. Duck); no loc. (J.E.M. Brown). Réunion I.: Bretagne (J.R. Williams). Madeira: Funchal (Silva & Wetterer). Cape Verde Is: Sal, Sta Maria (J. Wetterer); Santiago, Porto Formosa (J. Wetterer); Santiago, INIDA (J. Wetterer); Fogo, Ponta Verde (J. Wetterer). Italy: Milano (in flat) (F. Rigato). United Kingdom: London, Kew Gdns (H. Donisthorpe); Aberdeen (M. Show).
Fernández, F., 2008:
Tramp species, in hothouses, Palaearctic, potentially to be imported to the New World.