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Species: Linepithema humile

Classification:
Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Hypoclinea humilis Mayr, 1868b PDF: 164 (w.) ARGENTINA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Forel, 1908 PDF: 395 (m.); Newell, 1908: 28 (q.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1951 PDF: 186 (l.); Crozier, 1969a PDF: 250 (k.).
Combination in Linepithema (Iridomyrmex): Mayr, 1870b PDF: 959; in Iridomyrmex: Emery, 1888d PDF: 386; in Linepithema: Shattuck, 1992a PDF: 16.
Senior synonym of Linepithema arrogans, Linepithema riograndensis: Wild, 2004 PDF: 1207.

See Also:

Linepithema humile angulata pulex, Linepithema humile arrogans, Linepithema humile breviscapa, Linepithema humile pertaesta, Linepithema humile platensis, Linepithema humile praenotandum, Linepithema humile pulex, Linepithema humile scotti, Linepithema humile transiens

Overview:

The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is among the world’s most notorious, successful and well-studied invasive ant species. Linepithema humile is a nondescript, soft-bodied, small (2.2–2.6 mm), dull light to dark brown ant with large inset eyes. The species is native to the Paraná River drainage in South America, which stretches across northern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil (Wild, 2004). Linepithema humile thrives in Mediterranean climates, and over the past century it has spread to across the globe by human-mediated transport to Chile, western and southern North America, Hawaii, New Zealand, Easter Island, Australia, Japan, Africa, and southern Europe (Suarez et al., 2001; Wetterer et al., 2009). Argentine ants are significant pests, and are documented to cause substantial harm to native arthropod communities (Cole et al., 1992; Rowles & O'Dowd, 2009a), vertebrate communities (Suarez & Case, 2002; Suarez et al., 2005), plant communities (Christian, 2001; Ives et al., 2011; Lach, 2005; Rowles & O'Dowd, 2009b). Argentine ants are also significant agricultural pests (Vega & Rust, 2001)and urban/residential pests (Klotz et al., 2008a; Klotz et al., 2008b). 

Distribution:

Global tramp species native to South America and introduced across continental systems and island systems.


Flanders: only indoors [needs reference].

Identification:

Diagnosis among workers of introduced and commonly intercepted ants in the United States. Antenna 12-segmented. Antennal scape length less than 1.5x head length. Eyes medium to large (greater than 5 facets); do not break outline of head; placed distinctly below midline of face. Antennal sockets and posterior clypeal margin separated by a distance less than the minimum width of antennal scape. Anterior clypeal margin variously produced, but never with one median and two lateral rounded projections. Mandible lacking distinct basal angle. Profile of mesosomal dorsum with two distinct convexities. Dorsum of mesosoma lacking a deep and broad concavity; lacking erect hairs. Promesonotum separated from propodeum by metanotal groove. Propodeum with dorsal surface not distinctly shorter than posterior face; angular, with flat to weakly convex dorsal and posterior faces. Propodeum and petiolar node both lacking a pair of short teeth. Mesopleura and metapleural bulla covered with dense pubescence. Propodeal spiracle bordering posterior margin of propodeal profile. Waist 1-segmented. Petiole upright and not appearing flattened. Gaster armed with ventral slit. Erect hairs lacking from cephalic dorsum (above eye level), pronotum, and gastral tergites 1 and 2. Dull, not shining, and color uniformly light to dark brown. Measurements: head length (HL) 0.56–0.93 mm, head width (HW) 0.53–0.71 mm.

Comments:

Introduced species

Notes:

first record in NZ; 1990 (Green 1990)

References:

Christian, C. (2001) Consequences of a biological invasion reveal the importance of mutualism for plant communities. Nature, 413, 635-639.

Cole, F.R., Medeiros, A.C., Loope, L.L. & Zuehlke, W.W. (1992) Effects of the Argentine ant on arthropod fauna of Hawaiian high-elevation shrubland. Ecology, 73, 1313-1322.

Haney, P.B., Luck, R.F. & Moreno, D.S. (1987) Increases in densities of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri [Acarina: Tetranychidae], in association with the argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis [Hymenoptera: Formicidae], in southern California citrus. Entomophaga, 32, 49-57.

Human, K.G., Weiss, S., Weiss, A., Sandler, B. & Gordon, D.M. (1998) Effects of abiotic factors on the distribution and activity of the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environ. Entomol., 27, 822-833.

Ives, C.D., Hose, G.C., Nipperess, D.A. & Taylor, M.P. (2011) The influence of riparian corridor width on ant and plant assemblages in northern Sydney, Australia. Urban Ecosystems, ??, ??

Klotz, J., Hansen, L., Pospischil, R. & Rust, M. (2008) Urban ants of North America and Europe. Cornell University Press,  196 pp.

Klotz, J.H., Rust, M.K., Field, H.C., Greenberg, L. & Kupfer, K. (2008) Controlling argentine ants in residential settings (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, 51, 579-588.

Lach, L. (2005) Interference and exploitation competition of three nectar-thieving invasive ant species. Insect. Soc., 52, 257-262.

Phillips, P.A. & Sherk, C.J. (1991) To control mealybugs, stop honeydew-seeking ants. Calif. Agric., 45(2), 26-28.

Rowles, A.D. & O'Dowd, D.J. (2009) Impacts of the invasive Argentine ant on native ants and other invertebrates in coastal scrub in south-eastern Australia. Austral Ecol., 34, 239-248.

Rowles, A.D. & O'Dowd, D.J. (2009) New mutualism for old: indirect disruption and direct facilitation of seed dispersal following Argentine ant invasion. Oecologia, 158, 709-716.

Suarez, A.V. & Case, T.J. (2002) Bottom-up effects on persistence of a specialist predator: Ant invasions and horned lizards. Ecol. Appl., 12, 291-298.

Suarez, A.V., Holway, D.A. & Case, T.J. (2001) Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: insights from Argentine ants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 98, 1095-1100.

Suarez, A.V., Yeh, P. & Case, T.J. (2005) Impacts of Argentine ants on avian nesting success. Insect. Soc., 52, 378-382.

Vega, S.J. & Rust, M.K. (2001) The Argentine ant - a significant invasive species in agricultural, urban and natural environments. Sociobiology, 37, 3-25.

Vogel, V., Pedersen, J.S., Giraud, T., Krieger, M.J.B. & Keller, L. (2010) The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant. Diversity Distrib., 16, 170-186.

Wetterer, J.K., Wild, A.L., Suarez, A.V., Roura-Pascual, N. & Espadaler, X. (2009) Worldwide spread of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol. News, 12, 187-194.

Wild, A.L. (2004) Taxonomy and distribution of the argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 97, 1204-1215.

Wild, A.L. (2007) Taxonomic revision of the ant genus Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol., 126, vii, 1-151.

Wild, A.L. (2009) Evolution of the Neotropical ant genus Linepithema. Syst. Entomol., 34, 49-62.

Taxon Page Author History

On 2012-07-31 22:55:01 Eli Sarnat modified References
On 2012-07-31 22:44:11 Eli Sarnat modified Biology
On 2012-07-31 22:38:19 Eli Sarnat modified Distribution
On 2012-07-31 22:29:03 Eli Sarnat modified Identification
On 2012-07-31 22:26:40 Eli Sarnat modified Overview
On 2011-03-31 23:46:13 Eli Sarnat modified Distribution

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Wild, A. L., 2004:
(Worker, Figs. 1 and 5; queen, Figs. 8, 9, and 10; male, Figs. 11, 12, and 13)
Hypoclinea humilis Mayr 1868: 164. Worker description.
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr); Emery 1888: 386-388. First combination in Iridomyrmex .
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr); Wheeler 1913: 27-29. Male and queen description, worker redescription.
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr); Newell and Barber 1913: 38-39 (egg), 40-41 (larva), 42-45 (worker, male, queen pupae).
Iridomyrmex humilis variety arrogans Chopard 1921: 241-245. Syn. Nov. Junior synonym of I. humilis by Bernard 1967: 251. Restored to subspecies of L. humile by Shattuck 1992: 16.
Iridomyrmex riograndensis Borgmeier 1928: 64. Syn. Nov.
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr); Wheeler and Wheeler 1951: 186-189. Summary of larval biology.
Linepithema riograndense (Borgmeier) ; Shattuck 1992: 16.
Linepithema humile (Mayr); Shattuck 1992: 16. First combination in Linepithema .
Type Material Examined
Additional Material Examined
South American material examined given in Table 1. Specimens collected outside of South America are listed below. Given the large quantity of Argentine ants collected in California, I only list here a representative subsample of California specimens that were given a relatively thorough examination under the microscope (e.g., setal counts and measurements).
AUSTRALIA. Sydney [MZSP];Victoria (s. loc.) [BMNH].BELGIUM. Bruxelles Capitale: Brussels [BMNH, NHMB],Brussels Botanical Garden [MHNG].BERMUDA. Bermuda (s. loc.) [BMNH].CAMEROON. Centre-Sud: Nkoemvom [bMNh].FRANCE. Provence-Alpes-Co te d'Azur: Cannes [MCZC, NHMB],Castellane [BMNH],Hyeres [BMNH],Ste. Maxime [NHMB];Midi-Pyrenees: Toulouse [IFML].GERMANY. Berlin: Botanical Garden[MHNG].ITALY. Campania: nr. Naples [BMNH];Liguria: San Remo [NHMB];Sicilia: Palermo[BMNH];Toscana: Monte Argentario Giannella [BMNH],Orbetello [BMNH];Varazze (Savona) [MZSP].LESOTHO. Maseru: Maseru [BMNH]. MO- ROCCO. Tanger, Tangier [USNM].MEXICO. Baja California: Ensenada,Cortera FR [AVSC];Baja California Sur: Guerrero Negro [AVSC];Distrito Federal: Mexico City [BMNH],Distrito Federal (s.loc.) [WPMC].NAMIBIA. Erongo: Swakopmund [BMNH].POLAND. Dolnoslaskie: Breslau [NMHB].PORTUGAL. Faro: Algarve,Luz nr. Lagos [bMNh];Lisboa: Cascais [USNM],Estoril [USNM],Lisbona [MCZC, NHMB],Mafra [USNM],Praia das Macas [USNM];Madeira: Funchal [MCZC, NHMB],Porto Moniz [BMNH],RibeiraBrava [BMNH],Ilheu Chao [BMNH],Porto Santo [BMNH],Sao Vicente [BMNH],Vale de Paraiso [BMNH],Praia Formosa [BMNH],Porto da Cruz [BMNH],Feiteiras [BMNH],Caramujo [BMNH],Lower Levada [BMNH],Madeira Is. (s. loc.) [BMNH, MHNG, NHMB];Porto: Leca [BMNH],Oporto [BMNH].SOUTH AFRICA.Eastern Cape: Queenstown [BMNH],Somerset East [BMNH];Mpumalanga: Nelspruit[BMNH];Northern Cape: Colesberg [ALWC];Western Cape: Capetown [BMNH],Table Mt. [BMNH],nr. George [BMNH].SPAIN. Andalucia: Malaga [USNM];Canarias: Arenara [BMNH],Cruz de Tejeda [BMNH],Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Telde [BMNH, MCZC, USNM],Orotava [BMNH],Santa Brigida [BMNH],Tenerife, Agua Mansa [NHMB],Tenerife, Ladera de Guimar [BMNH],Tenerife, Volcan de Guimar [NHMB],Tenerife (s. loc.) [BMNH];Cataluna: Playa de Aro [NHMB];Galicia: Mte. Ferro b. Bayona [BMNH];IslasBaleares: Minorca, CalaForcat[BMNH].UNITED KINGDOM. Edinburgh: Edinburgh[BMNH];Sussex: Lewes [BMNH];Eastborne[BMNH];Exeter [BMNH];Windsor [BMNH];Glasgow [BMNH];W. Maidstone, Kent [bMNh];Chillingham [BMNH];Farnham House Lab, Imperial Bureau of Entomology [BMNH].UNITED STATES. Alabama: Lowdnes Co., Ft. Deposit [USNM];California: Alameda Co., Berkeley [UCDC, USNM];Humboldt Co., Redway [ALWC];Los Angeles Co., Pasadena[MZSP, USNM], Monterrey Co., Big Sur [ALWC];Orange Co., Bolsa Chica Marsh [MZSP];Riverside Co., Lake Skinner Camp [AVSC];Sacramento Co., Sacramento [UCDC];San Diego Co., UC Elliot Reserve [AVSC];San Diego Co., San Diego [UCDC];San Diego Co., E. San Diego [UCDC];San Diego Co., Pacific Beach [UCDC];San Diego Co., Mission Hills [UCDC];San Diego Co., Kate Sessions Park [UCDC];San Diego Co., Balboa Park [UCDC];San Diego Co., Point Loma [UCDC];San Joachin Co., Caswell State Park [PSWC];San Luis Obispo Co., Oso Flaco Lake [LACM];San Mateo Co., Colma [USNM];San Mateo Co., San Bruno Mt. [PSWC];Santa Clara Co., South Coyote [PSWC];Sonoma Co., Russian R. 6k E. Healdsburg [UCDC];Yolo Co., 6kW Capay [PSWC];Yolo Co., Davis [PSWC, UCDC];Yolo Co., Grasslands Regional Park, 8k SW Davis [PSWC, UCDC];Florida: Escambia Co., Gonzalez [MCZC];Louisiana: Plaquemines Co., Happy Jack [BMNH], Orleans Co., New Orleans [BMNH], Lousiana (s. loc.) [BMNH];Mississippi: Coahoma Co., Clarkesdale [USNM], Copiah Co., Hazelhurst [MCZC], Oktibbeha Co., Starkville [BMNH];South Carolina: York Co., York [BMNH].
. 1-7. Linepithema workers. 1. L. humile , lateral view. Specimen from Neembucu, Paraguay. 2. Undescribed Linepithema species, mesosoma, lateral view. Specimen from Parque Nacional El Palmar, Entre Rios, Argentina. 3. L. iniquum , mesosoma, lateral view. Specimen from the Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayua, Paraguay. 4. Undescribed Linepithema species, mesosoma, lateral view. Specimen from the Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayu, Canindeyu, Paraguay. 5. L. humile , head, full face view, same specimen as 1. 6. L. oblongum , head, full face view. Specimen from Infiernillos, Tucumaan, Argentina. 7. Undescribed Linepithema species, head, full face view. Same specimen as in Fig. 2.
Worker Measurements. HOLOTYPE: HL 0.74, HW 0.66, MFC 0.16, SL 0.76, FL 0.65, LHT 0.68, PW 0.45, ES 2.93, SI 115, CI 89.
Others (n = 81): HL 0.62-0.78, HW 0.53-0.72, MFC 0.14-0.18, SL 0.62-0.80, FL 0.52-0.68, LHT 0.57-0.76, PW 0.35-0.47, ES 1.98-3.82, SI 108-126, CI 84-93.
Worker Diagnosis. A large (HL> 0.62 mm) slender Linepithema . Head in full-face view longer than broad (CI 84-93), narrowed anteriorly and reaching its widest point just posterior to the compound eyes. Lateral margins broadly convex, grading smoothly into posterior margin. Posterior margin of head straight in smaller workers to weakly concave in larger workers. Compound eyes large (ES 1.98-3.82), comprising 82- 110 ommatidia (normally around 100). Antennal scapes long (SI 108-126), as long or slightly longer than HL and easily surpassing posterior margin of the head in full-face view. Maxillary palpi relatively short, segments 4 and 5 both noticeably shorter than segment2.
Pronotum and mesonotum forming a continuous convexity in lateral view, mesonotal dorsum nearly straight, not angular or strongly impressed, although sometimes with a slight impression in the anterior half.
Metanotal groove moderately impressed. Propodeum in lateral view inclined anteriad. In lateral view, dorsal propodeal face meeting declivity in a distinct though obtuse angle, from which the declivity descends in a straight line to the level of the propodeal spiracle.
Dorsum of head, mesosoma, petiole, and abdominal tergites 3 and 4 (= gastric tergites 1 and 2) devoid of erect setae (very rarely with a pair of small setae on abdominal tergite 4). Clypeus bearing a pair of long, forward-projecting setae. Abdominal tergites 5 and 6 each bearing a pair of long, erect setae. Ventrum of metasoma with scattered erect setae. Gula with a pair of short setae. Body and appendages, including gula, the entire mesopleuron, and abdominal tergites, covered in dense pubescence.
Country Admin. Argentina Buenos AiresLocality BocaStatusLatitude Longitude 34° 38' S58° 21'Collection ALWCArgentina Buenos AiresBuenos Aires34° 36' S58° 28' WBMNH, MHNG, NHMB, NHMW, UCDCArgentina Buenos AiresCampana34° 12' S58° 56' WALWCArgentina Buenos AiresReserva Costanera Sur34° 07' S58° 21' WAVSCArgentina Buenos AiresIsla Martin Garcia34° 21' S58° 16' WMACN, NHMBArgentina Buenos AiresLa Plata34° 56' S57° 57' WNHMBArgentina Buenos AiresLima-Zarete34° 03' S59° 12' WIFMLArgentina Buenos AiresOlivos34° 31' S58° 30' WMACNArgentina Buenos AiresReserva Otamendi34° 14' S58° 54' WALWC, AVSC, IFMLArgentina Buenos AiresRosas- F.C.Sud35° 58' S58° 56' WMACNArgentina Buenos AiresSanta Coloma34° 26' S59° 02' WALWCArgentina ChubutRawson43° 18' S65° 06' WPSWCArgentina CorrientesAyo. Cuay Grande28° 47' S56° 17' WALWCArgentina CorrientesCorrientes27° 28' S58° 50' WMACNArgentina CorrientesIta Ibate27° 25' S57° 10' WAVSCArgentina CorrientesPort Alvear29° 07' S56° 33' WAVSCArgentina CorrientesSto. Tome28° 33' S56° 03' WIFMLArgentina Entre Rios10k S Medanos33° 29' S58° 52' WALWCArgentina Entre RiosColon32° 15' S58° 07' WAVSCArgentina Entre RiosDiamante32° 01' S60° 39' WALWCArgentina Entre RiosEst. Sosa31° 44' S59° 55' WMACN, MHNG, NHMBArgentina Entre RiosParque Nacional El Palmar31° 53' S58° 13' WAVSCArgentina Entre RiosParque Nacional Pre Delta32° 7' S60° 38' WAVSCArgentina Entre RiosPort Ibicuy33° 48' S59° 10' WAVSCArgentina Entre RiosVictoria32° 38' S60° 10' WALWCArgentina Entre RiosVillaguay31° 51' S59° 01' WNHMBArgentina FormosaClorinda25° 17' S57° 43' WIFMLArgentina FormosaFormosa26° 11' S58° 11' WMACN, NHMBArgentina FormosaMojon de Fierro26° 03' S58° 03' WIFMLArgentina La RiojaAmingai28° 50' S66° 54' WALWC, IFMLArgentina La RiojaChuquis28° 54' S66° 58' WALWCArgentina MisionesParque Nacional Iguazui25° 42' S54° 26' WIFMLArgentina MisionesPosadas27° 23' S55° 53' WMZSPArgentina Santa Fe10k E Santa Fe, Ruta 16831° 41' S60° 34' WALWCArgentina Santa FeFives Lille30° 09' S60° 21' WNHMBArgentina Santa FePort Ocampo28° 30' S59° 16' WAVSCArgentina Santa FeRosario32° 57' S60° 40' WMACNArgentina Tucumai nTichuco26° 31' S65° 15' WALWCBrazil AmazonasManaus03° 07' S60° 02' WMZSPBrazil GoiasAnapolis16° 20' S48° 58' WMZSPBrazil Mato Grosso do Sul Corumba Faz. Sta. Blanca19° 01' S57° 39' WMZSPBrazil Mato Grosso do Sul Corumba Pto. Esperanga19° 37' S57° 27' WMZSPBrazil Mato Grosso do Sul Passo do Lontra19° 34' S57° 01' WPSWC, UCDCBrazil Mato Grosso do Sul Pto. Murtinho21° 42' S57° 52' WMZSPBrazil Rio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro22° 54' S43° 14' WMCSN, MCZC, MHNGBrazil Rio Grande do SulN. Wurtemberg28° 18' S53° 30' WMZSPBrazil Rio Grande do SulPelotas31° 46' S52° 20' WBMNHChile La AraucaniaTemuco38° 44' S72° 36' WMZSPChile SantiagoSantiago, Metropolitan area33° 27' S70° 40' WAVSCChile Valparaiso10k E Vina del Mar33° 00' S71° 31' WAVSCColombia QuindioArmenia4° 30' S75° 42' WWPMCEcuador PichinchaCarapungo0° 05' S78° 30' WALWCEcuador PichinchaMitad del Mundo0° 00' S78° 27' WALWCEcuador PichinchaQuito0° 11' S78° 30' WQCAZParaguay Alto ParaguayPto. 14 de Mayo20° 23' S58° 08' WMCSNParaguay Asuncioi nAsuncion25° 16' S57° 40' WIFML, MACN, NHMB, USNMParaguay BoqueronP.N. Defensores del Chaco, Cerro Leon20° 25' S60° 20' WALWCParaguay CentralSan Lorenzo25° 20' S57° 31' WALWCParaguay CordilleraSan Bernadino25° 16' S57° 19' WMHNGParaguay N eembucuPilar26° 52' S58° 18' WALWCParaguay Neembucu26° 52' S57° 47' WALWCParaguay Pte. HayesBenjamin Aceval24° 58' S57° 34' WUSNMParaguay Pte. HayesRio Confuso, Ruta Trans-Chaco25° 06' S57° 33' WALWC, IBNPParaguay Pte. HayesVilla Hayes25° 06' S57° 34' WALWC, IBNPParaguay Pte. Hayes5k SE Pozo Colorado23° 33' S58° 46' WALWCParaguay Pte. HayesRt. 5 3k SE Concepcion23° 27' S57° 27' WALWCParaguay San PedroPto. Rosario24° 30' S57° 00' WALWCPeru LimaLos Condores12° 03' S77° 03' WMZSPUruguay ColoniaCarmelo33° 59' S58° 17' WMACN, NHMBUruguay ColoniaColonia de Sacramento34° 28' S57° 51' WAVSCUruguay MontevideoMontevideo34° 51' S56° 10' WMACN, NHMB, NHMW
Body and appendages concolorous, most commonly a medium reddish or yellowish brown but ranging in some populations from testaceous to dark brown, never yellow or piceous. Integument shagreened and lightly shining.
Worker Geographic Variation. Specimens from introduced populations outside of South America tend to fall toward the upper range of size variation in nearly all measurements, although there is considerable variation both in the native and the introduced ranges. The holotype worker from Buenos Aires is among the largest ants from either range. Some Paraguayan populations, particularly those farther than 10 km from the Paraguay River, have a slightly smaller eye size (<95 ommatidia) and tend to be smaller than ants in the southern Parana drainage and along the major riverways. In general, Paraguayan specimens vary more in color than specimens from elsewhere, from testaceous to dark brown. The diagnostically sparse pilosity is generally consistent across all specimens, but several workers from Campana, Buenos Aires, have small erect setae on abdominal tergite 4 (= gastric tergite 2). These Campana workers otherwise fall within the range ofvariation for L. humile , and males from the same series clearly belong to L. humile .
Queen Measurements. (n = 13) HL 0.83-0.92, HW 0.83-0.93, SL 0.81-0.89, WGL 4.42-4.51, WL 1.67- 2.09, FL 0.78-0.90, LHT 0.88-0.97, ES 7.3-9.4, SI 96- 102, CI 93-101.
Queen Diagnosis. A robust species, dificult to distinguish from queens ofrelated Linepithema , with long antennal scapes and large eyes. Head in full face view normally somewhat longer than broad (CI 93-101), lateral margins convex and broadly curved into the posterior margin. Posterior margin ofhead straight to slightly concave, never deeply or conspicuously concave. Eyes large (ES 7.3-9.4). Antennal scapes long (SI 96 -102) and nearly equal to head length.
Entire body covered in a dense pubescence, a bit thicker and longer than that of the worker. Pilosity is also more developed than in the worker, with 2-11 (mean = 6) erect setae on the mesoscutum, 1-7 (mean = 4) erect setae on the scutellum, and 1-10 (mean = 3) erect setae on abdominal tergite 3, including the posterior row. Color as for the worker.
Queen Geographic Variation. Alate queens are much more common in collections from the native range than in collections from outside of South America. This observation is unlikely to be a sampling artifact given how heavily the introduced populations are represented in collections.
Male Measurements. (n = 25) HL 0.56-0.71, HW 0.56-0.74, SL 0.13-0.16, MML 1.40-1.96, MMW 0.76- 1.12, WGL 2.55-3.26, FL 0.60-0.77, LHT 0.51-0.66, SI 12.8-15.4, CI 98.2-106.0.
Male Diagnosis. A robust ant, larger than the worker, with an exceptionally well-developed mesosoma. Head about as broad as long in full face view (CI 98.2-106.0) and somewhat dorso-ventrally compressed in lateral view. Eyes large, occupying much of antero-lateral surface of head and forming the anterior margin ofthe head lateral to the clypeus and the lateral margin of the head anterior to midpoint. Ocelli large and in full frontal view set above the adjoining postero-lateral margins. Anterior clypeal margin straight to broadly convex. Mandibles small, having a single apical tooth and four to eight denticles along the masticatory margin and rounding into the inner margin. Masticatory margin relatively short, about the same length as the inner margin. Inner margin roughly parallel to, or even converging distally with, the exterior lateral margin.
Mesosoma well-developed, considerably wider than head width, and larger in bulk and in length than metasoma. Mesoscutum greatly enlarged, projecting forward in a convexity overhanging the pronotum. Scutellum large, convex, nearly as tall as mesoscutum and projecting well above the level ofthe propodeum. Propodeum overhanging petiolar node, and declivitous face strongly concave.
Wings short relative to mesosomal length (Fig. 17) and bearing a single submarginal cell. Wing color whitish or yellowish, with dark brown veins and stigma. Petiolar scale with a broad crest and taller than the length of the node. Ventral process well developed. Gaster oval in dorsal view, nearly twice as long as broad. Parameres terminating as rounded pilose lobes. Digitus short, with a sharp, downturned terminal ilament.
Dorsal surfaces of body largely devoid of erect setae, occasionally with a few ine, short setae scattered on mesoscutum, scutellum, and posterior abdominal tergites. Venter of gaster with scattered setae. Pubescence dense on body and appendages, becoming sparse only on the medial propodeal dorsum. Color as for the worker.
Male Geographic Variation. As in workers, specimens from introduced populations outside of South America tend to fall in the upper range of size variation.
Discussion
Taxonomy. These taxonomic results support current nomenclatural use. The holotype worker of Mayr's Hypoclinea humilis falls neatly within the range of variation present in the Argentine ant both in South America and in locations around the world where the ant is invasive (Figs. 15 and 16). The only older species-level name in the genus, Linepithema fuscum Mayr 1866, pertains to a male ant whose slender build, elongate genitalia, and distinct queen-like wing venation indicate only a distant relation to L. humile . Borgmeier's species riograndense , described from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is clearly conspecific with L. humile and is synonymized here. Borgmeier's specimen identifications in MZSP reveal that he considered the name humile to apply to a common, probably undescribed southern Brazilian Linepithema with short antennal scapes and more extensive pilosity. The aptly named subspecies L. humile arrogans Chopard , described from introduced L. humile populations in southern France, was probably inadvertently resurrected by Shattuck (1992) from an earlier synonymy. Here, I return arrogans to synonymy because there is no reason to view introduced Argentine ant populations as being heterospeciic.
Diagnosis . L. humile diagnosis is straightforward in the male caste. The distinctive bulky males of humile are not easily confused with males of any other species. Males of closely related forms share structural similarities with L. humile (e.g., the undescribed species in Fig. 14) but are considerably smaller (Fig. 17) with a much less developed mesosoma. The lack of known intergrades strongly supports the speciic status of L. humile . The only other congeneric males that share the size of humile are montane Andean and Caribbean forms associated with L. fuscum , but these are unlikely to be confused with L. humile . Linepithema fuscum -group males are structurally divergent (Shattuck 1992), with an unusually elongate habitus, a propodeum with a convex posterior face in lateral view, two submarginal cells in the forewing, and considerably longer wings relative to maximum mesosomal length (Fig. 17).
Diagnosis is somewhat more problematic in workers, as no single character serves to separate L. humile from congeneric species. Table 2 provides a summary of the minimum combination of three character states that can diagnose nearly all L. humile worker specimens over the full geographic distribution of Linepithema . Figure 15 shows a consistent though not absolutely diagnostic difference in eye size versus head length between the large-eyed L. humile and all other non-humile specimens. Figure 16 plots antennal scape length versus head length in L. humile versus several other species, excluding the distinct long-scaped species L. oblongum , L. leucomelas , and ants of the L. iniquum -complex. These species are readily recognizable with other characters. Specifically, iniquum-complex ants have a strongly impressed mesonotal dorsum (Fig. 3), pronotal setae, and smaller eyes (ES <2.0). L. leucomelas has a distinct white/brown bicoloration reminiscent of the ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.) 1793, standing setae on gastric tergites 1 and 2, and smaller eyes (ES <2.0).
L. oblongum (Fig. 6) is the species most similar to L. humile . This poorly known ant seems to be conined to the high Andes in northern Argentina and Bolivia. Workers share the sparse pilosity and a similar mesosomal proile with L. humile , but they are somewhat more elongate (CI 81-88, mean = 84 in L. oblongum ; CI 84 -93, mean = 90 in L. humile ) and have relatively smaller eyes (Fig. 18). Linepithema oblongum workers also have a noticeably smoother and shinier integument on the gastric dorsum than L. humile , and most workers have only sparse pubescence on gastric tergites2 and 3, although some of the larger specimens within a series may retain a dense pubescence. Males of L. oblongum are much smaller than those of L. humile (MML <1.1), and they lack the extraordinary mesosomal development of L. humile males. This species may be the sister taxon of the Argentine ant, a possibility that is currently being pursued with molecular genetic data (unpublished data).
. The Argentine ant's native distribution seems to be limited to the Parana River drainage (Fig. 19), conirming the conclusion of Tsutsui et al. (2001). South American records of L. humile outside the Paranaa drainage are invariably from urban areas, an observation that strongly supports the notion of recent introduction by human commerce. Paranaa drainage records are also more abundant than nonParanaa records (49 versus 8). Furthermore, most records fall within a few kilometers of the largest rivers: the Parana, the Paraguay, and the Uruguay. This is unlikely to be a sampling artifact, as evidenced from numerous records of other, non-humile species distant from major rivers (Fig. 20).
Records of L. humile in South America show the following pattern: patchy local abundance in low areas of the Parana River drainage; common along major rivers (perhaps aided through frequent natural dispersal along the river); and very recent dispersal out of the Parana drainage with human activity. Interestingly, some of the more morphologically divergent L. humile , including those with color variations and smaller compound eyes, are found>10 kilometers away from large rivers in the northern part of the native range. It is unlikely that this variation reflects the existence ofcryptic species, given that much ofthe variation is allopatric and that L. humile males show remarkable consistency in diagnostic traits across populations. Specimens from the southern native range tend to look more like the common pest L. humile , although there is still a fair amount of variation. Overall this pattern raises the hypothesis of a northern origin for the species with later dispersal along the rivers. This hypothesis could be tested with genetic data in a phylogeographic framework (Avise 2000).
The history and biology of the Argentine ant in its native range is liable to be complex. Argentine ants likely move along river channels during periods of natural disturbance, and some of the native range records probably correspond to recent local introductions through human commerce. It bears noting that L. humile is present in many urban areas along the Paranaa and Paraguay rivers. The preponderance of Argentine ant records from lat, expansive lood plains suggests that records from fast-running, deeply channelized stretches of the Upper Parana such as Argentina's Foz do Iguacu also may not represent native populations.
The morphological diversity in native-range L. humile raises the issue of intraspeciic diversity in other aspects of Argentine ant biology. Tsutsui and Case (2001) note variation in colony structure in the native range, and there also may be variation in mating systems and in colony life history. Studies that make use of contrasts between Argentine ant biology between native and introduced ranges would do well not to treat native range L. humile as a monolithic entity.
Rather, care should be taken to chose L. humile populations that are most likely to be close relatives of the introduced populations under study. Genetic work of Tsutsui et al. (2001) indicates that a southern Parana population represents the source population for California L. humile . It also remains a possibility that some biological changes that contribute to the Argentine ants' invasive success occurred within the native range before introduction. Detailed studies ofArgentine ant biology mapped onto a population-level phylogeny over the whole of the native range could determine if this were the case, as well as shed light on the sequence of evolutionary events leading to invasiveness in Argentine ants.

Espadaler, X., 2007:
(2, w; 8, w, m; 1 5, w; 2 3, w; 26, w; 31, w; 41, w; 44, w; 45, w). The Argentine ant is known from all the Canary Islands (Espadaler & Bernal, 2003). At El Hierro it occupies habitats from next to sea level to one thousand meters, in pine forests. Confronted with the two populations known to exist in North Mediterranean Europe (Giraud et al., 2002), the Argentine ants from El Hierro showed aggressiveness towards the Catalan population and reacted peacefully towards the Main population from mainland Europe. Aggression tests (one to one worker; five replicates) were run with two samples from El Hierro (La Frontera; Mirador de las Playas). I conclude that both samples from El Hierro belong to the genotypic profile of the Main population, the more abundant in Western Mediterranean Europe.

Ward, P. S., 2005:
I [introduced species]

Wild, A. L., 2007:
Hypoclinea humilis Mayr 1868: 164 (W). Holotype worker, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Stroebel, 1866 [NHMW, examined].
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) . Emery 1888: 386-388. First combination in Iridomyrmex .
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) . Wheeler 1913a: 27-29 (M, Q, W). Male and queen description, worker redescription.
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) . Newell and Barber 1913: 38-39 (egg), 40-41 (larva), 42-45 (W, M, Q pupae).
Iridomyrmex humilis var. arrogans Chopard 1921: 241-245 (W). Lectotype worker, by present designation [NHMB, examined], Cannes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France, Chopard [NHMB, examined]. Junior synonym of I. humilis by Bernard 1967: 251. Restored to subspecies of L. humile (Mayr) by Shattuck 1992a: 16. Returned to synonymy by Wild 2004: 1207.
Iridomyrmex riograndensis Borgmeier 1928: 64 (W). Lectotype worker, by present designation [MZSP, examined] and 7 worker paralectotypes, Rio Grande do Sul (s.loc.), Brazil, 19.i.1918 [MZSP, examined]. Junior synonym of L. humile (Mayr) by Wild 2004: 1207.
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) . Wheeler and Wheeler 1951: 186-189. Summary of larval biology.
Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) . Crozier 1969: 250. Karyotype.
Linepithema humile (Mayr) . Shattuck 1992a: 16. First combination in Linepithema .
Linepithema humile arrogans (Chopard) . Shattuck 1992a: 16. First combination in Linepithema .
Linepithema riograndensis (Borgmeier) . Shattuck 1992a: 16. First combination in Linepithema .
Linepithema humile (Mayr) . Shattuck 1994: 123.
Linepithema humile arrogans (Chopard) . Shattuck 1994: 123.
Linepithema riograndensis (Borgmeier) . Shattuck 1994: 127.
Linepithema humile (Mayr) . Bolton 1995: 247.
Linepithema humile arrogans (Chopard) . Bolton 1995: 246.
Linepithema riograndensis (Borgmeier) . Bolton 1995: 247.
Linepithema humile (Mayr) . Wild 2004: 1204-1215 (M, Q, W). Distribution and taxonomic redescription.
worker measurements: HL 0.74, HW 0.66, MFC 0.16, SL 0.76, FL 0.65, LHT 0.68, PW 0.45, ES 2.93, SI 115, CI 89, CDI 24, OI 40.
Worker measurements: (n = 81) HL 0.62-0.78, HW 0.53-0.72, MFC 0.14-0.18, SL 0.62-0.80, FL 0.52-0.68, LHT 0.57-0.76, PW 0.35-0.47, ES 1.98-3.82, SI 108-126, CI 84-93, CDI 23-28, OI 32-49.
Worker diagnosis: Eyes large (OI> 30); antennal scapes long (SI> 105); pronotum and first two gastric tergites lacking erect setae; mesopleura and metapleura densely pubescent.
Worker description: Head in full face view longer than broad (CI 84-93), narrowed anteriorly and reaching its widest point just posterior to compound eyes. Lateral margins broadly convex, grading smoothly into posterior margin. Posterior margin straight in smaller workers to weakly concave in larger workers. Compound eyes large (OI 32-49), comprising 82-110 ommatidia (normally around 100). Antennal scapes long (SI 108-126), as long or slightly longer than HL and easily surpassing posterior margin of the head in full face view. Frontal carinae narrowly to moderately spaced (CDI 23-28). Maxillary palps relatively short, shorter than Vi HL, ultimate segment (segment six) noticeably shorter than segment 2.
Pronotum and mesonotum forming a continuous convexity in lateral view, mesonotal dorsum nearly straight, not angular or strongly impressed, although sometimes with a slight impression in anterior portion. Metanotal groove moderately impressed. Propodeum in lateral view inclined anteriad. In lateral view, dorsal propodeal face meeting declivity in a distinct though obtuse angle, from which the declivity descends in a straight line to the level of the propodeal spiracle.
Petiolar scale sharp and inclined anteriorly, in lateral view falling short of the propodeal spiracle.
Dorsum of head (excluding clypeus), mesosoma, petiole, and gastric tergites 1-2 (= abdominal tergites 3-4) devoid of erect setae (very rarely with a pair of small setae on gastric tergite 2). Gastric tergites 3-4 each bearing a pair of long, erect setae. Venter of metasoma with scattered erect setae.
Integument shagreened and lightly shining. Body and appendages including gula, entire mesopleura, metapleura, and abdominal tergites covered in dense pubescence.
Body and appendages concolorous, most commonly a medium reddish or yellowish brown but ranging in some populations from testaceous to dark brown, never yellow or piceous.
measurements: (n = 13) HL 0.83-0.92, HW 0.83-0.93, SL 0.81-0.89, FL 0.78-0.90, LHT 0.88-0.97, EL 0.31-0.36, MML 1.67-2.09, WL 4.42-4.51, CI 93- 101, SI 96-102, OI 36-39, WI 24-27, FI 40-48.
Queen description: Moderately large species (MML 1.67-2.09). Head slightly longer than broad to as broad as long in full face view (CI 93-101), posterior margin slightly concave to slightly convex. Eyes of moderate size (OI 36-39). Ocelli small. Antennal scapes relatively long (SI 96-102), in full face view scapes in repose surpassing posterior margin by a length greater than length of first funicular segment.
Forewings short relative to mesosomal length (WI 24-27). Forewings with Rs+M at least three times longer than M.f2. Legs of moderate length relative to mesosomal length (FI 40-48).
Dorsum of mesosoma and metasoma with scattered standing setae. Mesoscutum bearing 2-11 standing setae. Body color medium reddish brown. Antennal scapes, legs, and mandibles concolorous with body.
Male measurements: (n = 12) HL 0.56-0.70, HW 0.56-0.74, SL 0.13-0.16, FL 0.60- 0.77, LHT 0.51-0.66, EL 0.31-0.34, MML 1.40-1.96, WL 2.55-3.26, PH 0.25-0.34, CI 99-106, SI 22-27, OI 51-55, WI 17-20, FI 37-45.
Male diagnosis: Forewing with single submarginal cell; mesosoma robust (MML> 1.3), mesoscutum greatly enlarged and overhanging pronotum; wings short relative to mesosomal length (WI <21).
Male description: Head about as broad as long in full face view (CI 99-106). Eyes large (OI 51-55), occupying much of anterolateral surface of head and separated from posterolateral clypeal margin by a length less than width of antennal scape. Ocelli large and in full frontal view set above adjoining posterolateral margins. Antennal scape of moderate length (SI 22-27), about 2/3 length of 3rd antennal segment. Anterior clypeal margin straight to broadly convex. Mandibles small, bearing a single apical tooth and 4-8 denticles along masticatory margin and rounding into inner margin. Masticatory margin relatively short, subequal in length to inner margin. Inner margin roughly parallel to, or converging distally with, exterior lateral margin.
Mesosoma unusually well developed, considerably wider than head width, and larger in bulk and in length than metasoma. Mesoscutum greatly enlarged, projecting forward in a convexity overhanging pronotum. Scutellum large, convex, nearly as tall as mesoscutum and projecting well above level of propodeum. Propodeum well developed and overhanging petiolar node, posterior propodeal face strongly concave. Forewings short relative to mesosomal length (WI 17-20) and bearing a single submarginal cell. Wing color whitish or yellowish with dark brown veins and stigma. Legs short relative to mesosoma length (FI 37-45).
Petiolar scale taller than node length and bearing a broad crest. Ventral process well developed. Gaster oval in dorsal view, nearly twice as long as broad. Gonostylus produced as a bluntly rounded pilose lobe. Volsella with cuspis present, digitus short and downturned distally.
Dorsal surfaces of body largely devoid of erect setae, occasionally with a few fine, short setae scattered on mesoscutum, scutellum, and posterior abdominal tergites. Venter of gaster with scattered setae. Pubescence dense on body and appendages, becoming sparse only on medial propodeal dorsum.
Color as for worker.
Distribution: Native to the Parana river drainage of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay. Introduced worldwide.
Biology: This important pest species has a literature too extensive to be covered in depth here. An early general review of the biology of this ant is given by Newell and Barber (1913). The spread of Argentine ants around the world is documented by Roura-Pascual et al. (2004), Wild (2004), Giraud et al. (2002), and Suarez et al.
(2001). Ecological impacts of Argentine ant invasion have been detailed in numerous studies, including Suarez and Case (2003), Touyama et al. (2003), Christian (2001), and Human and Gordon (1997). Colony structure has also received considerable attention, and relevant papers include Holway and Suarez (2004), Tsutsui and Case (2001), Reuter et al. (2001), and Kreiger and Keller (2000). A series of studies by Cavill and colleagues (Cavill and Houghton 1973, Cavill and Houghton 1974, Cavill et al. 1980) describe some of the glandular and cuticular chemistry of L. humile . Chemical and biological control options are reviewed by Harris (2002).
Of the L. humile material examined, more than 90% of native range records are within 10 kilometers of a major river in the Parana drainage. Contrary to some reports (Buczkowski et al. 2004), L. humile can reach high densities in urban areas in Argentina and Paraguay (Wild 2004) as well as in less disturbed habitats (Heller 2004). Where nest information was recorded in the native range, 24 nests are from soil, five from under covering objects such as stones or garbage, one from an old termite mound, and one from under bark. This species is polygynous and polydomous, and many nests are recorded as having numerous dealate queens. In contrast to introduced populations, alate queens are not uncommon in nests in Argentina (Wild 2004). One observation in Victoria, Argentina, notes a live lycaenid larva in the brood nest (Wild, pers. obs.).
species: Workers of the sister species L. oblongum , from the high Andes of Bolivia and northern Argentina, normally have at least some members of each series with dilute pubescence on gastric tergites 2-4. These ants also have, on average, smaller eyes (OI 28-38, Fig. 86) and longer antennal scapes (SI 120-139, Fig. 85) than L. humile . Workers of L. anathema, a rarely-collected Brazilian species, have a more produced propodeum (Fig. 33), a narrow head (CI <86), and usually bear short standing setae on gastric tergites 1-2. Workers of other Humile-group species have shorter antennal scapes and often bear erect setae on the pronotum and basal gastric tergites. Males of related species are much smaller than L. humile and lack the greatly swollen mesosoma.
Discussion: The taxonomy and distribution of L. humile was recently reviewed in depth by Wild (2004).
Material examined: ARGENTINA. Buenos Aires: Boca, 34°38'S 58°21'W [ALWC];Buenos Aires, 34°36'S 58°28'W [BMNH, MHNG, NHMB, NHMW, UCDC];Campana, 34°12'S 58°56'W [ALWC, BMNH, CASC, MZSP];Reserva Costanera Sur, 34°07'S 58°21'W [AVSC];Isla Martin Garcia [MACN, NHMB];La Plata [NHMB];Lima-Zarete [IFML];Olivos [MACN];Reserva Otamendi, 34°14'S 58°54'W [ALWC, AVSC, IFML];Rosas- F.C.Sud [MACN];Santa Coloma, 34°26'S 59°02'W [UCDC].Chubut: Rawson, 43°18'S 65°06'W [PSWC].Corrientes: Ayo. Cuay Grande, 28°47'S 56°17'W [UCDC];Corrientes [MACN];Ita Ibate, 27°25'S 57°10'W [AVSC];Port Alvear, 29°07'S 56°33'W [AVSC];Sto. Tome, 28°33'S 56°03'W [IFML].Entre Rios: 10 km S Medanos, 33°29'S 58°52'W [ALWC, BMNH];Colon, 32°15'S 58°07'W [AVSC];Diamante, 32°01'S 60°39'W [ALWC];Est. Sosa [MACN, MHNG, NHMB];Parque Nacional El Palmar, 31°53'S 58°13'W [AVSC];Parque Nacional Pre Delta, 32°7'S 60°38'W [AVSC];Port Ibicuy, 33°48'S 59°10' [AVSC];Victoria, 32°38'S 60°10'W [ALWC];Villaguay [NHMB]. Formosa: Clorinda [IFML];Formosa [MACN, NHMB];Mojon de Fierro [IFML].La Rioja: Aminga, 28°50'S 66°54'W [ALWC, IFML, UCDC];Chuquis, 28°54'S 66°58'W [UCDC].Misiones: Parque Nacional Iguazu, 25°42'S 54°26'W [IFML];Posadas [MZSP].Santa Fe: 10 km E Santa Fe, Ruta 168, 31°41'S 60°34'W [ALWC, MCZC, USNM];Fives Lille [NHMB];Port Ocampo, 28°30'S 59°16'W [AVSC];Rosario [MACN].Tucuman: Tichuco, 26°31'S 65°15'W [UCDC].AUSTRALIA. New South Wales: Sydney [MZSP].Victoria (s. loc.) [BMNH].BELGIUM. Bruxelles Capitale: Brussels [BMNH, NHMB],Brussels Botanical Garden [MHNG].BERMUDA. Bermuda (s. loc.) [BMNH].BRAZIL. Amazonas: Manaus [MZSP].Goias: Anapolis [MZSP].Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumba, Faz. Sta. Blanca [MZSP];Corumba, Pto. Esperanca [MZSP];Passo do Lontra, 19°34'S 57°01'W [PSWC, UCDC];Pto. Murtinho [MZSP].Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro [MCSN, MCZC, MHNG].Rio Grande do Sul: N. Wurtemberg [MZSP];Pelotas [BMNH].Brazil (s.loc.), Port-of-entry U.S. intercept [ALWC, UCDC, USNM]. CAMEROON. Centre-Sud: Nkoemvom [BMNH]. CHILE . Bio-Bio: 3 km W Florida [UCDC]; Los Angeles, 37°26'S 72°19'W [UCDC].Coquimbo: Los Vilos [UCDC].La Araucania: Temuco [MZSP].Maule: 10 km E Curico [UCDC].Region Metropolitana: Talagante [UCDC].Santiago: Santiago, Metropolitan area, 33°27'S 70°40'W [AVSC].Valparaiso: 10 km E Vina del Mar, 33°00'S 71°31'W [AVSC];nr. El Melon, 1 km N of tunnel [UCDC].COLOMBIA. Quindio: Armenia [WPMC].ECUADOR. Pichincha: Carapungo, 00°05'S 78°30'W [ALWC, QCAZ];Mitad del Mundo, 00°00'S 78°27'W [ALWC, BMNH, MCZC];Quito, 00°11'S 78°30'W [QCAZ].FRANCE. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur: Cannes [MCZC, NHMB],Castellane [BMNH],Hyeres [BMNH],Ste. Maxime [NHMB].Midi-Pyrenees: Toulouse [IFML].GERMANY. Berlin: Botanical Garden [MHNG].ITALY. Campania: nr. Naples [BMNH].Liguria: San Remo [NHMB].Sicilia: Palermo [BMNH].Toscana: Monte Argentario Giannella [BMNH];Orbetello [BMNH];Varazze (Savona) [MZSP].LESOTHO. Maseru: Maseru [BMNH].MOROCCO. Tanger: Tangier [USNM].MEXICO. Baja California: Ensenada, Cortera FR [AVSC].Baja California Sur: Guerrero Negro [AVSC].Distrito Federal: Mexico City [BMNH];Distrito Federal (s.loc.) [WPMC].Guanajuato: Guanajuato [ALWC].Mexico: 18 km SW Toluca [UCDC].NAMIBIA. Erongo: Swakopmund [BMNH].PARAGUAY. Alto Paraguay: Pto. 14 de Mayo [MCSN].Asuncion: Asuncion [IFML, MACN, NHMB, USNM].Boqueron: P.N. Defensores del Chaco, Cerro Leon [ALWC].Central: San Lorenzo, 25°20'S 57°31'W [ALWC].Cordillera: San Bernadino [MHNG].Neembucu: Pilar, 26°52'S 58°18'W [ALWC, MCZC];26°52'S 57°47'W [ALWC, LACM].Pte. Hayes: Benjamin Aceval [USNM];Rio Confuso, Ruta Trans-Chaco [ALWC, INBP];Villa Hayes, 25°06'S 57°34 W [ALWC, INBP, MCZC];5 km SE Pozo Colorado, 23°33'S 58°46' [ALWC, BMNH, INBP, MCZC, USNM];Rt. 5, 3 km SE Concepcion, 23°27'S 57°27'W [ALWC].San Pedro: Pto. Rosario, 24°30'S 57°00'W [ALWC, MZSP].PERU. Lima: Los Condores [MZSP].POLAND. Dolnoslaskie: Breslau [NMHB].PORTUGAL. Faro: Algarve, Luz nr. Lagos [BMNH].Lisboa: Cascais [USNM];Estoril [USNM];Lisbona [MCZC, NHMB];Mafra [USNM];Praia das Macas [USNM].Madeira: Funchal [MCZC, NHMB];Porto Moniz [BMNH];Ribeira Brava [BMNH];Ilheu Chao [BMNH];Porto Santo [BMNH];Sao Vicente [BMNH];Vale de Paraiso [BMNH];Praia Formosa [BMNH];Porto da Cruz [BMNH];Feiteiras [BMNH];Caramujo [BMNH];Lower Levada [BMNH],Madeira Is. (s. loc.) [BMNH, MHNG, NHMB].Porto: Leca [BMNH];Oporto [BMNH].SOUTH AFRICA. Eastern Cape: Queenstown [BMNH];Somerset East [BMNH].Mpumalanga: Nelspruit [BMNH].Northern Cape: Colesberg [ALWC, MCZC].Western Cape: Capetown [BMNH];Table Mt. [BMNH];nr. George [BMNH].SPAIN. Andalucia: Malaga [USNM].Canarias: Arenara [BMNH];Cruz de Tejeda [BMNH];Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Telde [BMNH, MCZC, USNM];Orotava [BMNH];Santa Brigida [BMNH];Tenerife, Agua Mansa [NHMB];Tenerife, Ladera de Guimar [BMNH];Tenerife, Volcan de Guimar [NHMB];Tenerife (s. loc.) [BMNH].Cataluna: Playa de Aro [NHMB].Galicia: Mte. Ferro b. Bayona [BMNH].Islas Baleares: Minorca, Cala Forcat [BMNH].THAILAND. Port-of-entry U.S. intercept [USNM].UNITED KINGDOM. Edinburgh: Edinburgh [BMNH]. Sussex: Lewes [BMNH].Eastborne [BMNH].Exeter [BMNH].Windsor [BMNH].Glasgow [BMNH].W. Maidstone, Kent [BMNH].Chillingham [BMNH].Farnham House Lab, Imperial Bureau of Entomology [BMNH].U.S.A. Alabama: Lowdnes Co., Ft. Deposit [USNM].California: Alameda Co.,Berkeley [UCDC, USNM];Humboldt Co., Redway [ALWC, BMNH];Los Angeles Co., Pasadena [MZSP, USNM];Los Angeles Co.: Sta. Monica Mts, Big Rock Road, 34°02'N 118°37'W [UCDC];Monterrey Co., Big Sur [ALWC];Orange Co., Bolsa Chica Marsh [MZSP];Riverside Co., Lake Skinner Camp [AVSC];Sacramento Co., Sacramento [UCDC];San Diego Co., UC Elliot Reserve [AVSC];San Diego Co., San Diego [UCDC];San Diego Co., E. San Diego [UCDC];San Diego Co., Pacific Beach [UCDC];San Diego Co., Mission Hills [UCDC];San Diego Co., Kate Sessions Park [UCDC];San Diego Co., Balboa Park [UCDC];San Diego Co., Point Loma [UCDC];San Joachin Co., Caswell State Park [PSWC];San Luis Obispo Co., Oso Flaco Lake [LACM];San Mateo Co., Colma [USNM];San Mateo Co., San Bruno Mt. [PSWC];Santa Clara Co., South Coyote [PSWC];Sonoma Co., Russian R. 6 km E. Healdsburg [UCDC];Yolo Co., 6 km W Capay [PSWC];Yolo Co., Davis [PSWC, UCDC];Yolo Co., Grasslands Regional Park, 8 km SW Davis [PSWC, UCDC].Florida: Escambia Co., Gonzalez [MCZC].Louisiana: Plaquemines Parish., Happy Jack [BMNH];Orleans Parish, New Orleans [BMNH];Louisiana (s. loc.) [BMNH].Mississippi: Coahoma Co., Clarkesdale [USNM];Copiah Co., Hazelhurst [MCZC];Oktibbeha Co., Starkville [BMNH].South Carolina: York Co., York [BMNH].URUGUAY. Colonia: Carmelo [MACN, NHMB];Colonia de Sacramento, 34°28'S 57°51'W [AVSC].Montevideo: Montevideo [MACN, NHMB, NHMW].

Wild, A. L., 2007:
Alto Paraguay, Boquerón , Central, Ñeembucú , Pte. Hayes, San Pedro, “ Paraná R.” (Dept. unknown) (ALWC, BMNH, IFML, INBP, MACN, MCSN, MCZC, MHNG, MZSP, NHMB). Literature records: Alto Paraguay, Boquerón , Central, Ñeembucú , Pte. Hayes, San Pedro (Wild 2004, Wild 2007).

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 65 times found in private residence, 18 times found in backyard, 13 times found in house, 4 times found in grassland, 0 times found in Unknown, 8 times found in residence, 2 times found in Urban, 2 times found in on damp exposed soil, 6 times found in home, 6 times found in front yard, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 523 times Bay Area Ant Survey (BAAS), 7 times search, 4 times hand collecting, 0 times Manual catch, 2 times Winkler, 2 times malaise trap, 1 times MW 25 sample transect, 5m, 1 times cookie bait, 1 times hand collection, 1 times Intercept trap, 1 times Manual, ...

Elevations: collected from 4 - 2732 meters, 244 meters average

Type specimens: holotype of Hypoclinea humilis: casent0915577; syntype of Iridomyrmex humilis arrogans: casent0911562

(-1 examples)



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