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Argentina, Bolivia (type locality), Peru, Brasil (SC, PR, PA), Guianas, Costa Rica, Honduras. Costa Rica: scattered localities above 800m.
Regarding this species, Brown (1965) states:
T. pusillus appears to be a soil dweller in cultivated and pampas areas as well as in forest (Kempf, 1961). It also seems to exist at higher elevations (e.g., in a coffee plantation at Venecia, near Medellin, Colombia). Probably it is strongly subterranean in foraging and nesting habits.
In Costa Rica I have collected this species from the north slope of Volcan Barba at 800m, just west of Monteverde at 900m, Cerro Cacao in the Guanacaste Conservation Area, and Pittier Biological Station at 1670m in the Cordillera de Talamanca. The Cerro Cacao collection was from beneath a stone under the stunted forest of Cerro Pedregal. The other collections were from Winkler samples of sifted litter from the forest floor. The collection from near Monteverde contained workers and a dealate queen.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1965. Contributions to a reclassification of the Formicidae. IV. Tribe Typhlomyrmecini (Hymenoptera). Psyche (Camb.) 72:65-78.
Emery, C. 1906 ("1905"). Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. XXVI. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 37:107-194.
Kempf, W. W. 1961. A survey of the ants of the soil fauna in Surinam (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. 4:481-524.
Menozzi, C. 1927. Formiche raccolte dal Sig. H. Schmidt nei dintorni di San Jose di Costa Rica. Entomol. Mitt. 16:266-277.
Concepción (MHNG). Literature records: Pte. Hayes (Fowler 1981).
Found most commonly in these habitats: 48 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, isolated peak with oak trees, 22 times found in mature wet forest, 18 times found in montane wet forest, 10 times found in tropical wet forest, 4 times found in wet forest, 1 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 1 times found in road edge, 2nd growth forest, 3 times found in cloud forest, 1 times found in isolated clearing in mature wet forest area, open lawn area at edge of building., 3 times found in lowland wet forest, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 110 times ex sifted leaf litter, 4 times under stone, 3 times in soil, 1 times nest in clay bank, 3 times Malaise trap, 1 times under stones, 1 times sifted litter, 1 times Stunted forest on Cerro Pedregal. Under stone., 1 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 1 times Hojarasca, 1 times ex sifted litter from forest floor, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 91 times miniWinkler, 12 times search, 15 times MaxiWinkler, 7 times Winkler, 4 times Malaise, 2 times pan trap, 1 times blue pan trap, 1 times fogging, 1 times litter sample, 1 times Mini Winkler, carrion baited times PF, ...
Elevations: collected from 50 - 1670 meters, 821 meters average
Type specimens: Holotype of Typhlomyrmex schmidti: casent0913587; Holotype Typhlomyrmex schmidti: jtl056095; paratype of Typhlomyrmex schmidti: casent0913588; Paratype Typhlomyrmex schmidti: jtl056096; syntype of Typhlomyrmex pusillus: casent0903807; syntype of Typhlomyrmex schmidti: casent0915318