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Costa Rica (southern Pacific lowlands) to northern Colombia.
Brown and Wilson (1959) summarize the genus as follows:
"Widespread in tropics and warm temperate areas. Primarily forest-dwelling; some species occur in grassland and arid scrub. ... Nests mostly in soil and rotting wood; a few species live in arboreal plant cavities in tropical rain forest. Foraging hypogaeic to epigaeic-arboreal. Food: most species are collembolan feeders; a few are polyphagous predators or occasionally feed on sugary substances..."
Members of the genus are all predaceous, with a kinetic mode of attack (Bolton 1999).
Regarding the species marginiventris, Brown (1962) states
"Nests in the soil, often in paths or other openings, in rain forest or plantations, and the workers forage over the open ground among leaves or herbs by day as well as night. Common on Barro Colorado Island [Panama]"
I have never encountered this species in Winkler samples from Costa Rica. My collecting is biased toward closed canopy mature forest, where there is a litter layer. This supports Brown's observations that this species prefers open areas and synanthropic habitats.
Bolton, B. 1999. Ant genera of the tribe Dacetonini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 33:1639-1689.
Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini, with a revision of the Strumigenys species of the Malagasy Region by Brian L. Fisher, and a revision of the Austral epopostrumiform genera by Steven O. Shattuck. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 65:1-1028.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1958 (1957). The neotropical species of the ant genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith: Group of marginiventris Santschi. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 65:123-128.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1962. The neotropical species of the ant genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith: Synopsis and keys to the species. Psyche 69:238-267.
Brown, W. L., Jr., Wilson, E. O. 1959. The evolution of the dacetine ants. Quarterly Review of Biology 34:278-294.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 1 times found in wet forest, 2 times found in dry forest, 1 times found in montane rainforest, 1 times found in tropical rainforest, 1 times found in tropical rainforest, with big trees, probably primary.
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 3 times ex sifted leaf litter, 2 times Malaise trap, 1 times litter sample, 1 times banana plantation.
Collected most commonly using these methods: 2 times Winkler, 2 times Malaise, 1 times MaxiWinkler.
Elevations: collected from 90 - 1000 meters, 281 meters average
Type specimens: syntype of Strumigenys marginiventris: casent0912859