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Species: Strumigenys emmae   (Emery, 1890) 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2018)

Epitritus emmae Emery, 1890c: 70, pl. 8, fig. 6 (w.) ANTILLES. Neotropic. Primary type information: Antilles, Saint Thomas Is., coll. Eggers; CASENT0102082; MSNG. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Wheeler, 1908a: 149 (q.).
Combination in Quadristruma: Brown, 1949b: 48; in Strumigenys: Bolton, 1999 PDF: 1674.
Senior synonym of Strumigenys clypeatus, Strumigenys malesiana, Strumigenys wheeleri: Brown, 1949b: 48.
See also: Bolton, 1983 PDF: 400; Bolton, 2000: 950.


   (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists) Species is native to: Australasia bioregion (based on species list records).

Afrotropical Region: Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Tanzania
Australasia Region: Australia, Barrow Island, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
Indomalaya Region: Borneo, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: United States
Neotropical Region: Anguilla, Aruba, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Suriname, United States Virgin Islands
Oceania Region: French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Samoa, Tonga
Palearctic Region: China, Japan, Macaronesia, Yemen

Distribution Notes:

Cabo Verde


Original Description:

Epitritus emmae Emery 1890:70. Holotype worker: Saint Thomas Island, West Indies [MCSN].

Later moved to Quadristruma, then Strumigenys. See Bolton (2000) for complete synonymy.

Natural History:

Members of the genus are all predaceous, with a kinetic mode of attack (Bolton 1999).

This species has a distribution and habitat preference typical of tropical tramp species (Brown 1954). It occurs widely in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including oceanic islands such as Hawaii, and it is found most often in highly disturbed habitats such as beach margins and agricultural areas. The geographic origin of emmae is apparently Australia, where several related species occur (Bolton 2000).


Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology Series 46:267-416.

Bolton, B. 1999. Ant genera of the tribe Dacetonini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 33:1639-1689.

Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini, with a revision of the Strumigenys species of the Malagasy Region by Brian L. Fisher, and a revision of the Austral epopostrumiform genera by Steven O. Shattuck. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 65:1-1028.

Brown, W. L., Jr. 1949. Revision of the ant tribe Dacetini: III. Epitritus Emery and Quadristruma new genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 75:43-51.

Brown, W. L., Jr. 1954. The ant genus Strumigenys Fred. Smith in the Ethiopian and Malagasy regions. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 112:3-34.

Emery, C. 1890. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. I-V. Bullettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 22:38-80.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 9 times found in Rainforest, 11 times found in forest, 3 times found in coastal scrub, 6 times found in mixed forest, 5 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 4 times found in palm forest, 4 times found in littoral forest, 4 times found in tropical dry forest, 2 times found in dry scrub, 0 times found in Sand Pine Scrub, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 23 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 12 times ex sifted leaf litter, 9 times under rootmat, litter on rock, 3 times under stone, 4 times ex rotten log, 4 times litter, 3 times under root mat on stone, 2 times leaf litter, 1 times ex soil, 2 times ex sifted litter, 1 times in soil, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 11 times 9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 2 times 2 Maxi Winks, 8 times Winkler, 5 times davis-sifting; incidental aspirated, 5 times maxiWinkler, 1 times 4 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 2 times Hand-Collected from 1 square meter of sifted leaf litter, 3 times MW 50 sample transect, 5m, 1 times 3 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 3 times Pitfall trap, 1 times search, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 914 meters, 170 meters average

Type specimens: Holotype of Epitritus wheeleri: casent0249106; Lectotype of Epitritus clypeatus: casent0916677; syntype of Epitritus clypeatus malesiana: casent0909342, casent0912831; syntype of Strumigenys emmae: casent0102082; type of Epitritus clypeatus var. malesiana: focol2177, focol2178

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